References

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Endnotes

1 Another approach that may be taken is to use group level mapping. If your text(s)

capture a group situation (e.g., focus group) you could use the group as your level

of analysis and develop a single map at the group level.

2 Adapted from Wrightson (1976).

Appendix A: Coding Rules and

Examples for Structural Relationships2

Linkage Codes

There are seven codes that can be applied to the linkages in a causal map. The codes and

descriptions are provided.

Code Description

+ Positive

- Negative

+ Will not hurt, does not prevent, not harmful

- Will not help, does not promote, no benefit

A May or may not be related to

M Effects in non-zero manner

0 No effect, no relation to

Structural Relationship Examples

1. Cause/Link/Effect

“If there was on-site daycare then it would be easier for me to do my job.”

On-site daycare /+/ Easier for me to do my job.

2. Cause/Link/Complex Effect

“It’s visual so the programming is easier and the logic is easier too.”

It’s visual /+/ programming is easier

It’s visual /+/ logic is easier

3. Complex Cause/Link/Simple Effect

“If as a mother they know they have a place to take their children, they know they

have a place for the kids to go after school, then I think there would be a lot less

missed days.”

If as a mother they know they have a place to take their children /-/ missed days.

If as a mother they know they … for the kids to go after school /-/ missed days.

4. Either/Or Relationship

“Either I’m going to get that promotion or I am going to move to a dot com

company to get the money I deserve.”

Get that promotion /+/ get the money I deserve.

Move to a dot com company /+/ get the money I deserve.

5. Probability

“Hiring a new CIO might help with the lack of promotions for women.”

Hiring a new CIO /+/ lack of promotions for women.

6. Inverted

“I’m just amazed because they are so into their children.”

They are so into their children /+/ I’m just amazed

7. Utility

“The trend toward outsourcing will sure help India.”

Outsourcing /+/ India

8. Complex Cause/Link/Complex Effect

“You have maintainability and robustness because you’re using OO and you have

a good number of classes.”

Using OO /+/ Maintainability

Using OO /+/ Robustness

Have a good number of classes /+/ Maintainability

Have a good number of classes /+/ Robustness