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Cognitive Maps from Houston Case

Collective map created with aggregate method

Collective map created with congregate method

infrastruct ure 1 Quality of life1

Population1

Immigration1

Business growth1

Jobs1 Labor1 Business climate1

Property value1

Congestion1

Tax income1

Pollution control1 Pollution1

Cost of living1

Housing p rice1

Education1

Recreation 1

Proximity to

goods/services

Public health1

Emigration1

Att ractiveness to

ind

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-

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-

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-

Attractiveness to

Individuals

Immigration

Population''

Housing price

Cost of Living

Business Climate

Business Growth

Jobs

Quality of

Life

Property Values Tax Revenue Infrastructure

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+

+

Pollution

+

-

Labor

+

+

Mobility

+

-

+

R1

R3

B2

B1

B3

+

+

+ +

-

+

+

R4

B4

Utilities

R2

R3'

-

B2'

B4'

B4"

R1'

Collective map created with workshop mapping method

Competit ion for Budget

fund

Inflow funds not

consistent

Polititcal const ituency

for infrastructure

Infrastructure

Time and phasing

constraint

Quality of life

deterioriating

rate

- +

-

- +

Infrastructure

management

efficiency

Informat ion and

knowledge

+

Sharing in formatio n

between agencies

Databases

DSS

+

+

+

+

Needs for

infrastructure

Population

Businesses

Funding from

government

Politicians' job

performance

Economic

development

job opportunities

mobility

safety

health

housing and

community

+

+

+

++

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Maintenance

+

+ Education

+

distributio n of access

to infrast ructure

+

Aesthetics

+

Conservative

- decisions

-

Environment

Income

+

+

+

+

+

Annexation

New buildings

+

-

Pollution

-

+

Ecological services

+

-

-

+

+

Infrastructure

Deficit

-

+

Budget def-icit+

+

Short-t erm focus

+

-