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Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP

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Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press

in the UK and in certain other countries

Published in the United States

by Oxford University Press Inc., New York

© Richard W. Kaeuper 1999

The moral rights of the author have been asserted

Database right Oxford University Press (maker)

First published 1999

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,

without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press,

or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate

reprographics rights organisation. Enquiries concerning reproduction

outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department,

Oxford University Press, at the address above

You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover

and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Data available

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

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ISBN 0–19–820730–1

1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2

Typeset by Hope Services (Abingdon) Ltd.

Printed in Great Britain

on acid-free paper by

Biddles Ltd.,

Guildford and King’s Lynn

to Seth, Geoffrey, and John


Essential support for launching this project came from awards granted by the

Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation in 1989–91. Their generous financial

and moral support is gratefully acknowledged. The University of Rochester

gave me one-semester academic leaves in 1991, 1993, and 1997, for which I am

likewise grateful.

Warm thanks go to the anonymous Clarendon Press readers, and to William

Calin, John Maddicott, Jeffrey Ravel, and Roberta Krueger, who read large

parts of the book manuscript and gave helpful critiques. Tony Morris encouraged

the project and saw the book through the contract stage at the Press with

much appreciated skill and enthusiasm. Ruth Parr, Anna Illingworth, and

Dorothy McLean directed the crucial process by which a large manuscript

became a book. Sarah Dancy did the truly heroic work of copy-editing. The

staff in Reference and Interlibrary Loan, Rush Rhees Library, University of

Rochester, obtained even the most obscure French sources. The index was

skilfully prepared by Nicholas Waddy.

Responding to my ideas as I formulated them was one gift from my wife

Margaret. Even more important was her splendidly sound advice as I shaped

the book and her unfailing capacity to ask the hard questions.

This book is dedicated to my sons, Seth, Geoffrey, and John, with love and


Richard W. Kaeuper

University of Rochester