Appendix E

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Biographical Sketches of

Committee Members and Staff

CHARLES F. WELLFORD (Chair) is professor and formerly served as

chair of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University

of Maryland. He also serves as director of the University of Maryland

Center for Applied Policy Studies, the Maryland Justice Analysis

Center, and a faculty mentor for the Gemstone Program. In Maryland he

serves on the Maryland Sentencing Policy Commission, the Correctional

Options Advisory Board, and the Criminal Justice Information Advisory

Board. He also serves on the Advisory Commission on Sentencing for the

Superior Court of the District of Columbia. He was chair of the National

Research Council’s (NRC) Committee on the Social and Economic Impact

of Pathological Gambling and currently chairs the Committee on Law and

Justice. His most recent research has focused on the determinants of

sentencing, the development of comparative crime data systems, and the

measurement of white-collar crime. He has a Ph.D. in sociology from the

University of Pennsylvania (1969).

ROBERT F. BORUCH is university trustee chair professor of the Graduate

School of Education and the Statistics Department at the Wharton School,

University of Pennsylvania. He is an expert on research methods for evaluating

programs and projects in the United States and other countries. In the

United States, he serves on the board of trustees of the William T. Grant

Foundation, the board of directors of the American Institutes for Research,

the Advisory Council on Education Statistics and Evaluation Review Panel

of the U.S. General Accounting Office. In his international work, he chaired

the National Academy of Sciences education statistics delegation to China.

He has conducted seminars on program evaluation in Israel, Colombia,

India, Cote D’Ivoire, and Kenya. He has been a consultant to the World

Health Organization on AIDS prevention research and to UNESCO and the

U.S. Agency for International Development on project evaluation. He has

lectured in Poland, Germany, and the United Kingdom on special problems

of survey research and randomized experiments for program evaluation.

His work on the design of field experiments for planning and evaluating

social and educational programs has received recognition form the American

Educational Research Association (Research Review Award), the Policy

Studies Association, and the American Evaluation Association (Gunnar and

Alva Myrdal Award). He has been a fellow at the American Statistical

Association, the Center for Advance Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and

the Rockefeller Foundation. He is the author of about 150 articles in research

journals and author or editor of over 10 books. He has a Ph.D. in

psychology/statistics from Iowa State University (1968).

ANTHONY A. BRAGA (Consultant) is senior research associate in the

Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management of the Malcolm Wiener

Center for Social Policy at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of

Government. His research focuses on working with criminal justice agencies

to develop crime prevention strategies to deal with urban problems,

such as firearms violence, street-level drug markets, and violent crime hot

spots. He has served as a consultant on these issues to a wide range of

public agencies and private institutions, as well as numerous state and local

law enforcement agencies. He was a key member of the Boston Gun Project/

Operation Ceasefire working group. He has an M.P.A. from Harvard University

and a Ph.D. in criminal justice from Rutgers University.

LINDA B. COTTLER is professor of epidemiology in the Department of

Psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Her

work has been in the areas of methods of psychiatric epidemiological research,

with emphasis on substance abuse and dependence (drugs and alcohol)

and its co-morbidity with other disorders, and prevention research.

Specifically, her contributions to the field include risk factors for substance

abuse, assessment of substance use and psychiatric disorders, the public

health consequences of substance use, including HIV, and peer-delivered

prevention models to reduce HIV and substance abuse. She is director of a

postdoctoral training program in epidemiology and biostatistics of the National

Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), director of a pre- and

postdoctoral training program in co-morbidity and biostatistics of the National

Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and a consultant to the World

Health Organization’s Mental Health Division. She is on the advisory board

of the National Center for Responsible Gaming, a member of NIDA-K


IRG, and a member of NIDA’s editorial board. She served on the NRC

Committee on the Social and Economic Impact of Pathological Gambling.

She has an M.P.H. from the Boston University School of Public Health and

a Ph.D. from Washington University, St. Louis.

ROBERT D. CRUTCHFIELD is professor of sociology and department

chair at the University of Washington. He has written extensively on

labor markets and crime, as well as on racial and ethnic disparities in

prosecution, sentencing, and imprisonment. He is a past vice-president of

the American Society of Criminology and is currently on the Council of

the American Sociological Association and the American Sociological

Association’s Crime, Law, and Deviance Section. He served on the editorial

board for the National Institute of Justice’s CJ2000 project. He has

been a deputy editor of Criminology and has served on the editorial board

of the journal Social Problems. He is currently on the editorial boards of

Crime and Justice and Crime and Justice Research. He served on the

NRC’s Ford Foundation minority predoctoral review panel on anthropology

and sociology. He has M.A. (1976) and Ph.D. (1980) degrees in

sociology fromVanderbilt University.

JOEL L. HOROWITZ is the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison professor

of economics at Northwestern University. He specializes in econometric

theory, semiparametric estimation, bootstrap methods, discrete choice

analysis, and inference with missing and incomplete data. He is currently

working on projects involving adaptive testing, estimation of additive models

with unknown links, bootstrap methods for nonsmooth models, and

bandwidth selection in semiparametric estimation. He is co-editor of

Econometrica and a member of the Econometric Society, the American

Economic Association, the American Statistical Association, the American

Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Transportation Research

Board. He has served on several NRC ad hoc committees, including

the Committee on Data and Research for Policy on Illegal Drugs, and is

currently a member of the Committee on National Statistics. He has a

Ph.D. from Cornell University (1967).

ROBERT L. JOHNSON is professor of pediatrics and clinical psychiatry and

director of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine at the University of Medicine

and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School. His research

focuses on adolescent physical and mental health, adolescent HIV, adolescent

violence, adolescent fatherhood and risk prevention/reduction programs with

specific emphasis on substance and alcohol abuse, sexuality and sexual dysfunction,

male sexual abuse, suicide, and AIDS. He currently serves on the

National Institute of Mental Health’s national advisory council, the board of

the Violence Institute of New Jersey, and the pediatric residency review

committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. He

has previously been a member of the advisory committee on adolescent health

of the Office of Technology Assessment, chair of the Board of Advocates for

Youth, and president of the New Jersey State Board of Medical Examiners.

He also serves on several Institute of Medicine (IOM) committees, including

the Board on Health Care Services, and was a member of the Committee on

Unintended Pregnancy. He has an M.D. from the New Jersey Medical School,

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (1972).

STEVEN D. LEVITT is professor of economics at the University of Chicago.

He is a research fellow at the American Bar Foundation, a faculty

research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research, and editor of

the Journal of Political Economy. He has studied various aspects of crime

and criminality, including the impact of police and prisons on crime, the

economics of gangs, the juvenile justice system, and the link between legalized

abortion and crime. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts

Institute of Technology (1994).

TERRIE E. MOFFITT is professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin

at Madison and professor of social behavior and development at the

Institute of Psychiatry in the University of London. She researches the

developmental interplay between nature and nurture in the genesis of antisocial

behavior. She is principal investigator of the Environmental-Risk

Study of the Medical Research Council and is associate director of the

Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit in New

Zealand. She is a fellow of the United Kingdom’s Academy of Medical

Sciences and a recipient of the American Psychological Association’s distinguished

scientific award for early career contribution to psychology in the

area of psychopathology. She has a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the

University of Southern California (1984).

SUSAN A. MURPHY is an associate professor of statistics and senior associate

research scientist in the Institute for Social Research at the University

of Michigan. Her present research interests concern causal inference and

sequential decisions, sometimes called dynamic or adaptive or tailored treatment

regimes. Other interests include profile and parametric likelihood

models and the development of methodology for the area of drug prevention

research—in particular the use of event history analysis. In 2000, she

was elected a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. She has been

a member of the NRC’s Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. She

has a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill


KAREN E. NORBERG is assistant professor of psychiatry at Boston University

and visiting research associate at the Center for Health Policy at

Washington University in St. Louis. Her current research interests include

economic and game theory models of parent-child interaction, social and

economic factors affecting emotional and physical health of low income

youth, adolescent suicide and self-injury, and social contagion. She is the

principal investigator of a NIMH project to study social and economic

factors in an adolescent suicide cluster. She has an M.D. from Harvard

University (1978).

JOHN V. PEPPER (Study Director) is associate professor of economics at

the University of Virginia. His current work reflects his wide range of

interests in social program evaluation, applied econometrics, and public

economics. He is an author of numerous published papers, conference

presentations, and edited books. At the National Research Council, he has

made important contributions to the work of panels of the Committee on

Law and Justice, including reports on measurement problems in criminal

justice research, policy on illegal drugs, and assessment of two cost-effectiveness

studies on cocaine control policy. He has a Ph.D. in economics

from the University of Wisconsin.

CAROL V. PETRIE is staff director of the Committee on Law and Justice

at the National Research Council, a position she has held since 1997. Prior

to her work there, she was the director of planning and management at the

National Institute of Justice, responsible for policy development and administration.

In 1994, she served as the acting director of the National

Institute of Justice during the transition between the Bush and Clinton

administrations. Throughout a 30-year career, she has worked in the area

of criminal justice research, statistics, and public policy, serving as a project

officer and in administration at the National Institute of Justice and at the

Bureau of Justice Statistics. She has conducted research on violence, and

managed numerous research projects on the development of criminal behavior,

policy on illegal drugs, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect,

transnational crime, and improving the operations of the criminal justice

system. She has a B.S. in education from Kent State University.

PETER REUTER is professor in the School of Public Affairs and in the

Department of Criminology at the University of Maryland. In July 1999 he

became editor of the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. He is

currently also senior economist at RAND. He founded and directed

RAND’s Drug Policy Research Center from 1989 to 1993. Since 1985 most

of his research has dealt with alternative approaches to controlling drug

problems, both in the United States and in western Europe. He has been a

member of the NRC’s Committee on Law and Justice and the IOM’s Committee

on the Federal Regulation of Methadone and its Panel on Assessing

the Scientific Base for Reducing Tobacco-Related Harm. He testifies frequently

before Congress and has addressed senior policy audiences in many

countries, including Australia, Chile, Colombia and Great Britain. He has

served as a consultant to numerous organizations in this country and

abroad. He has a Ph.D. in economics from Yale.

RICHARD ROSENFELD is professor of criminology and criminal justice

at the University of Missouri, St. Louis. His research areas are violence and

social organization, crime statistics, and crime control policy. He has written

extensively on the social sources of criminal violence, youth homicide,

and violent crime trends. His current research investigates the role of networks

in sustaining violence and the impact of incarceration on homicide

rates. He is executive counselor of the American Society of Criminology. In

1994, he received the Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching from

the University of Missouri, St. Louis. He has a Ph.D. in sociology from the

University of Oregon (1984).

JOEL WALDFOGEL is a business and public policy faculty member at the

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a faculty research

fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Prior to arriving at

Wharton in 1997, he served on the faculty of the Yale University Economics

Department. His research interests span law and economics and industrial

organization. Within law and economics, he has conducted research

on criminal sentencing, labor markets for ex-offenders, civil litigation, and

the measurement of discrimination. Within industrial economics, he has

conducted empirical studies of price advertising, media markets and minorities,

and the operation of differentiated product markets. He has a

Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University (1990).

JAMES Q. WILSON is the James A. Collins professor of management and

public policy (emeritus) at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is

also the Ronald Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University.

Previously, he was a professor of government at Harvard University. He is

the author or co-author of 14 books, has edited or contributed to books on

urban problems, government regulation of business, and the prevention of

delinquency among children, and has published many articles. He has served

on several NRC committees, including the Committee on Law and Justice,

the Panel on Research on Criminal Careers, and the Committee on Data

and Research for Policy on Illegal Drugs. He has a Ph.D. from the University

of Chicago (1959).

CHRISTOPHER WINSHIP is professor of sociology at Harvard University.

He was previously at Northwestern University as director of the Program

in Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences, and as chair of the

Department of Sociology. He was a founding member of Northwestern’s

Department of Statistics and held a courtesy appointment in economics. He

also served as director of the Economics Research Center at the National

Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. He is currently

doing research on several topics: the Ten Point Coalition, a group of black

ministers who are working with the Boston police to reduce youth violence;

statistical models for causal analysis; the effects of education on mental

ability; causes of the racial difference in performance in elite colleges and

universities; and changes in the racial differential in imprisonment rates

over the past 60 years. He is currently a member of the NRC-IOM’s Committee

on Adolescent Health and Development. He has a Ph.D. in sociology

from Harvard University (1977).