Rape and Sexual Assaults

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 

According to the NCVS, 84 percent of the rapes and sexual assaults

reported in 2000 were committed without a weapon. There were an estimated

6,550 firearm-related rapes or sexual assaults in 2000; these constituted

less than 3 percent of NCVS-reported rapes.

Firearms and Self-Harm

Historically, the number of successful suicides in the United States has far

exceeded the number of homicides. In 1999, the number of suicides was nearly

double the number of murders. In contrast, nonfatal injuries resulting from

suicide attempts are much less common than injuries caused by violent assaults,

regardless of weapons used. In this section, we describe the patterns and trends

for death and nonlethal injuries resulting from self-inflicted, firearm-related harm.

Suicide

In 1999, there were 29,199 suicides in the United States—57 percent of

them involving the use of a firearm. Males of all ages are at higher risk of

1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998

Rate per 100,000

300

200

100

0

Total

Nonfirearm

Firearm

FIGURE 3-5 Rates of robbery by firearm involvement.

SOURCES: Calculated from Zawitz (2001); Maguire and Pastore (2002: Table

3.120); U.S. Census Bureau (2001a, 2001b, 2002).

suicide; in 1999, males committed 14,479 (87 percent) of firearm-related

suicides. Whites are at higher risk of suicide than blacks, but the suicide rate

for young black males has been rising and by 1999 was nearly the same as the

suicide rate for young white males. Figure 3-6 shows the number and rate of

firearm-related suicides per 100,000 by five-year age groupings for 1999. As

the figure shows, more firearm-related suicides were committed by those 35

to 39 years old than any other five-year age grouping, although those 80 to

84 years old committed suicide at the highest rate, 13.7 per 100,000.

The total suicide rate has remained relatively constant in the United

States, but the proportion of suicides committed with a firearm increased

steadily from the 1960s to the early 1990s before beginning a moderate

decline. The age distribution of suicides over this period also changed,

with a rise in suicide among the young and the old and a small decline

among working-age adults. Figure 3-7 shows trends in the suicide rate

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

15

10

5

0

Suicide

Number

Suicide

Rate

Number

Rate per 100,000

Age

85+

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

15-19

10-14

5-9

0-4

FIGURE 3-6 Number and rate of firearm-related suicides, 1999.

stratified by firearm involvement from 1981 to 1999. Between 1986 and

1990, the firearm suicide rate plateaued at a rate of about 7.56 per

100,000; since then, firearm suicides have fallen by 18 percent to 6.19

per 100,000 in 1999.

Trends by race are presented in Figure 3-8. As the figure shows,

whites have dominated the overall trend in firearm suicides. The firearmrelated

suicide rate for whites increased 9 percent from 1981 to a twodecade

peak in 1990 before declining 19 percent over the past decade.

For blacks, a similar pattern occurred, although the peak rate was in

1994. The rate for other races combined was relatively stable until 1994,

then declined somewhat.

Trends by age are presented in Figure 3-9. Persons age 75 and

older had the highest rates of firearm-related suicide during the previous

two decades. The period from 1981 to 1990 saw the greatest

change among this age group, increasing 48 percent to 16.37 per

100,000. Then, from 1990 to 1999, the firearm-related suicide rate for

this age group decreased 21 percent to 13.05 per 100,000. Trends for

1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999

Rate per 100,000 in Each Group

14

12

10

8

6

4

Total

Firearms

Nonfirearms

FIGURE 3-7 Suicide rates by firearm involvement.

persons ages 15 to 24 showed similar patterns, increasing until 1994,

then declining to the present. By contrast, firearm-related suicide rates

for those ages 25 to 74 have been declining steadily since the early

1980s. The rates for children ages 0 to 14 have remained relatively

stable, increasing slightly from 1981 to 1990, then declining to the

1981 rate by 1999.