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Preface page ix

Introduction 1

PART I THE GIFT: MEANINGS AND MOTIVES

1 The SocialMeaning of Things 15

Things and Social Relationships 17

Four Different Types of Social Relationship 21

The Four Basic Meanings of Gifts 26

Conflicting Social Lives of Things 30

Things: Markers asWell as Marks of Relationship 31

2 Patterns of Giving and Receiving 34

The Gift: Empirical Research 35

Psychological Functions of Giving 43

Motives to Give 45

Positive Feeling 46

Insecurity 47

Power and Prestige 47

Reciprocity, Equality 48

Self-Interest 48

Hostility, Hate, Contempt 49

Fiske’s Four Models and the Motives to Give 50

Offensive and Embarrassing Gifts 52

The Debt Balance: Source of Relational Risks 53

3 The Anatomy of Gratitude 56

The Spirit of the Gift 58

The Recipient of the Gift 64

Gratitude, Reciprocity, and Culture 67

Gratitude: The Moral Memory of Mankind 67

Gratitude, Power, Dependence 69

Gratitude Dissected 71

4 Women, Gifts, and Power 76

Empirical Research onWomen’s Gift Giving 81

Presents and Money Gifts 82

Hospitality 83

Care and Help 83

Blood and Organs 84

Four Models to InterpretWomen’s Gift Giving 86

Asymmetrical Reciprocity in Favor of Men 86

Equivalent Reciprocity 88

Asymmetrical Reciprocity in Favor ofWomen 90

Alternating Asymmetry 91

The Paradox of Female Gift Giving 95

PART II SOLIDARITY AND SELECTIVITY

5 Social Theory and Social Ties 101

Classical Theory: Unity of Generosity and Self-Interest 103

Affective and Instrumental Bases of Solidarity 103

Reciprocity and Morality as Bases of Social Ties 108

Modern Theory: Splitting Up Affection and Utility 112

Solidarity and Rational Choice Theory 112

Norms, Values, and Emotions as Bases of Solidarity 115

Combining Anthropological and Sociological Theory 116

Reciprocal Obligation 116

Motives 118

Ritual 120

6 Solidarity, Gifts, and Exclusion 123

Positive Manifestations of Solidarity 125

Giving Money 125

Giving Time 126

Giving Care 129

Negative Aspects and Consequences of Solidarity 133

The Two-Edged Sword of Solidarity 136

The Matthew Effect of Gift Giving 138

Philanthropic Particularism 139

Inherent Failures of Solidarity 142

7 Family Solidarity 144

The Relationship between Generations 147

Family Solidarity: Empirical Research 150

Dimensions of Family Solidarity 150

The Nature of Family Ties 152

Intergenerational Solidarity: Values and Beliefs 155

Caring for Family 157

The Troubled Side of Family Solidarity 159

Macro- and Microsolidarity 162

Family Solidarity: Solid but Ambivalent 165

PART III CONTEMPORARY SOLIDARITY

8 Changing Solidarity 169

Changing Society, Changing Individuals 171

Individualization and Social Ties 171

The Assertive Self 173

Diversification and Uncertainty amid

Strangers 175

Globalization and the New Society 177

Changes in Contemporary Solidarity 179

Traditional Solidarity 180

Local and Global Solidarity 181

Civil Solidarity 184

Transformed Solidarity 187

9 Solidarity and the Gift 189

The Gift: Meanings and Motives 190

Solidarity and Selectivity 192

Contemporary Solidarity 194

Solidarity and the Gift 195

Recognition of the Other 195

Social Distance 197

Motives for Solidarity 199

Reciprocity: Gift and Sacrifice 201

Toward a Theoretical Model of Solidarity 205

From Organic to Segmented Solidarity 208

References 213

Index 225