Index

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68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 

Adorno, T., 51

affection, affectivity, 9, 95, 112, 115, 118,

120, 124, 161, 162, 190, 191, 199, 201,

206

feelings of, 161, 165, 194

aggression, aggressive, 186, 187

feelings, 186

tendency to respond with, 186

altruism, altruistic, 80, 84, 85, 109, 111,

112, 132, 182

and gift giving, 85

prescribed, 160, 161, 165, 194

and selfishness, 118

and solidarity, 110

suicide, 204

surrender, 50

Appadurai, A., 16–17, 31

Arber, S., 164

Arendt, H., 196

assertiveness, 209

increased, 175

association, 115

instrumental ties of, 118

asymmetry, 69

alternating, 86–95, 192

and power inequality, 190

Attias-Donfut, C., 164

attraction, 115

authoritarian personality, 51

authority, 27, 50, 51, 119

relational model of, 51

structures of, 175

authority ranking, 21, 23

autonomy, 92–94, 95, 96–97, 141, 183,

209, 210

annihilation of, 207

desire for, 161

growing emphasis on, 175

personal, 175

women’s, 93–94, 192

Baal, J. van, 79

balance of debt, 7, 70–71

Balinese cockfight, 120

barter, 118, 119

Barthes, R., 19

Baudrillard, J., 19

Bauman, Z., 171–172, 178

Bayertz, K., 5

Beck, U., 141, 172

Becker, H., 147

Bender, T., 208

beneficence, norm of, 111

benevolence, acts of, 192

Bengtson, V., 146, 151–152, 153

Bennett,W., 184

Berking, H., 4, 203

blood, 84–85

and belonging, 201

donation(s), 3, 20, 36, 84

loyalty, 201

sacrifice, 121, 201

Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., 160

Bourdieu, P., 19

225

Index

Brown, R., 117

Burgers, J., 159

Caplow, T., 36–37, 47, 81, 85, 137

care (help, mutual assistance, support),

9, 83–84, 198, 209, 212

chains, 178

collective, 136

elderly, 162

formal and informal, 163

a s aform of control, 160

globalized, 178

(in)formal, 9, 129–132, 142–143, 146,

147, 157–158, 163, 164, 165, 180, 187,

193, 194

institutional, 162

provided to aged people, 157

state-provided, 162

caregivers, informal, 132, 163

caring arrangements, provisions, 162

formal, 163

intrafamilial, 163

microsocial, 163

public, 164

Carrier, J., 32

Carter, S., 184

Castells, M., 177

charity, 9, 46, 123, 125, 142, 193,

209

donations to, 125, 188

giving to, 180

growing willingness to give to, 198

Cheal, D., 21, 37–38, 81, 85, 95, 137

Christmas, 109, 137

cards, 109

gift(s), packet, present(s), 3, 26, 30,

36, 38, 53

citizenship, 126, 184

decline, 188

dimensions of, 188

increase, 188

civil society, 184

civility, 184–185

and civil society, 185

concern with, 184

decline of, 184

as a form of solidarity, 185

meanings of, 184

notion of, 184

civilization, 184

process, 184

cohesion (social, family), 102, 103,

104–105, 111, 116, 150, 154, 178

internal, 205

and solidarity, 102

Coleman, J., 112, 114, 133

collective representations, 109

commodity, alienable, 18

community, 22–23, 25, 26, 27, 31, 50, 107,

118

bonds of, 74

feelings, 183, 188

forms of, 183

model, 30

modern forms of, 104

production, 89

small homogeneous, 107

small-scale, 104, 118, 178

communitarian tradition, 116

community, communal sharing, 21,

22–23, 25

ritualistic, 201

traditional forms of, 197

complementarity thesis, 164–165

Comte, A., 103, 201, 202

conscience collective, 104–105, 133

consequences, intended and

unintended, 114

consumption, 19–20

conspicuous, 18, 23

contract (social, silent)

between generations, 162

informal solidarity, 146

microsocial, macrosocial, 146, 163, 164

welfare state, 146

Cooley, C., 44

dala, 88, 90

debt balance, 48, 49, 53, 54, 84

decline (social), 179, 184

accounts of, 179

dependence. See (in)dependence,

dependency

destruction of wealth, 28

226

Index

(dis)respect, 187

and care for fellow citizens, 185

diversification, 11, 169, 175–177

toward fellow citizens, 184

mutual, 183, 207, 208

public, 208

division of labor, 103, 104–105, 109,

133

(dis)trust, 101, 118

intergroup cooperation and, 200

mutual, 135, 160, 183

relations of, 173

do ut des, 4, 109, 199

Douglas, M., 2, 32, 123, 141

Durkheim, E., 1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 102, 103–105,

106, 109, 112, 113, 116, 120, 121, 133,

146, 150, 170, 180, 181, 189, 194, 204,

208, 209, 210, 211, 212

Dutroux, M., 181

Dykstra, P., 157, 158, 164

Elias, N., 114, 184

Elster, J., 112, 113

emotion management, 37

Engbersen, G., 159

equality, 28, 31, 48, 50, 51, 120, 190, 191,

201, 206

relational model of, 51

equality matching, 21, 23–24, 25, 31

equivalence, 119

Etzioni, A., 9, 112, 116

exchange, exchange relations, 78

asymmetrical, 111

based on self-interest, 193

direct and equivalent, 110

economic, 202

equal or equivalent, 197

and exploitation, 87

generalized, 110

as the means of gaining power over

people, 78

of money, commodities, 89

principle of, 108

reciprocal, 102, 117

exchange of sacrifices, 16–18, 32, 33,

43

exchange theory, 37

faithfulness, 110–111, 141

as a sociological feeling, 111

family (familial) solidarity, family ties,

10, 139, 144–166, 187, 191, 194, 212

ambivalent feelings of, 161, 166

conflictive, 166

and immigration society, 159

problematic aspects of, 162

transnational forms of, 159

troubled, 166

Fararo, T., 114

Finch, J., 160

Firth, R., 60

Fiske, A. P., 16–17, 21–25, 26, 30–31,

50–52, 119, 190, 191

free riding, free riders, 113–114, 133

risk of, 115

Fortuyn, P., 181

Freud, A., 50

Freud, S., 65

Geertz, C., 120

Gemeinschaft, 103, 105–107, 133, 150

gender, gender differences, roles, 154

in altruism, 80

in caring motives, 161

changing, 169

in family life, 154

in gift giving, 192

in help exchange, 155

and power inequality, 192

generation(s), 144–145, 147–150, 194

as age cohort, 147

cohort conception of, 148

concept, 148

contract (social) of, between, within

the family, 145, 146

as determined by a shared

conscience, 148

problem, 147

relationship between, 147

structure of, 149

synthesis between, 172

theory, 148

generosity, 4–9, 22, 47, 73, 109, 112,

125

Gesellschaft, 103, 105–107, 133

227

Index

gift(s), 1

as an act of unfriendliness, 49

agonistic origin of the word, 1

altruistic, 108

bad, 35, 52

as barter, 108

and (as opposed to) commodities, 6,

16–18, 19, 20–21

definition of, 39

etymological roots of the word, 51

as expression of solidarity, 123

free, 111

and generosity, 65, 66

inalienable, 16–18

inalienability of, 18

money, 49, 81, 82–83, 138

as moral cement of society, 112

offensive, embarrassing, 35, 52–53

and poison, 51

pure, 108, 118, 119, 193

redundancy of, 38

rejection of, 54

and sacrifice, 203

spirit of, 45, 58–64

threshold, 63

as tie signs, 7

wedding, 38

gift economy, 19, 21, 22–23, 87, 89, 141

gift exchange, 21, 77–78, 117

ceremonial, 108

competitive, 90

as a contest of honor, 119

dependence and independence in, 70

as an instance of social exchange, 117

as a mixture of altruism and

selfishness, 109

as the moral cement of human

society and culture, 67, 109

as a moral economy, 21

as opposite to economic exchange, 117

as a principle of exclusion, 77–78

as a self-sustaining system, 118

symmetrical pattern of, 91

as total social phenomenon, 117

gift giving (and receiving), 8

abstract and anonymous, 123–124

care, 124–132, 180

competitive, 28

core meaning of, 117

disclosing identities, 53

economic dimension of, 108

empirical study of, 36

gendered meaning(s) of, gender

effect of, 8, 36, 192

interpersonal, 207

as a means to express, gain prestige,

109

money, 124–126

motives underlying, 124

to political parties, 207

psychological functions of, 35, 43–45

psychological motives underlying,

motivations, 39, 46

ritual, symbolic aspects of, 121,

137

silent bookkeeping of, 160

sociological dimension of, 108

time to volunteer work, 124–129,

180

women’s greater, larger share in, 38,

42

Gift Giving in the Netherlands, 26, 68

globalization, 11, 169, 177–179, 183

process, 170, 195

Godbout, J., 3, 4

Godelier, M., 3, 61

Goffmann, E., 38, 43

Gouldner, A., 2, 69, 110, 111, 112, 118, 119,

200

gratitude, 4–8, 9, 22, 30, 35, 46, 47, 54,

56–75, 95, 110–111, 141, 191

action tendency of, 56, 62

creating social cohesion and

community, 57, 69

definitions of, 56–58

envy and, 64

externalized, 64

faithfulness and, 67

fostering the continuity of social life,

67

imperative (force of), 56, 72

modern conception of, 64

moral and psychological aspects of,

73

228

Index

moral basis of reciprocity, 71

moral cement of human society and

culture, 58

moral coercion, 57

moral memory of mankind, 8, 67

moral obligation to give in return,

71

moral virtue, 57, 73

as negative force, 72

objectified, 64

part of the chain of reciprocity, 57,

72

personal virtue, 66

personality asset, characteristic, trait,

57, 58, 64, 73

power, dependence, 69–71

social, societal, and cultural meaning

of, 74, 191

spiritual, religious, or magical layer

of, 72, 191

group (solidarity)

ideals and identity, 201

internal, 208

large-scale, 207

Habermas, J., 5, 196

hau, 59–61, 73

Hechter, M., 9, 112–114

Heider, F., 150

Hochschild, A., 37, 178–179

homo economicus, 22, 107

homo sociologicus, 107

Homans, G., 150

Homer, 176

Honneth, A., 196

honor, 45, 47, 119, 193

hospitality, 4, 39, 42, 83, 84

as basis of morality, 176

classical, 177

contemporary, 176

depersonalized and commercialized,

177

epitome of human community, 203

as expression of solidarity, 170

general obligation to, 176

obligatory character of, 176

original meaning of, 176–177

as recognition of otherness, 176

ritual of, 201

toward strangers, 170, 176–177

Hyde, L., 62–63, 75

identification(s), 22, 115, 132, 165

ethnic or nationalist, 200

with the family, 145

feelings of, 194

new, 183

and social ties, 183

identity, identities, 53, 54, 115, 196

diversification, diversity of, 170,

194

fluidity, fragmentation of, 175

gifts as mirror of, 35

of giver, recipient, 35, 43–45, 95

individual (and group), 104, 115, 212

individual(s_) sense of, 104, 172

personal, cultural, social, 108, 194

risk of losing, 96

shared, 116, 133

uncertainty about, 194

Ignatieff, M., 200

inalienable possessions, 78–79

(in)dependence, dependency, 27, 77, 209

upon family members, own children,

162, 163

feelings of, 160, 161, 166

on group for need satisfaction, 113,

121

mutual, 109, 114, 121, 173, 185, 197

new forms of, 190

and reciprocity, 173

undesired, 28

individualism, 176

individualization, 11, 141, 145, 169,

171–173, 194, 197–198

process, 131, 170, 172, 174, 194, 210

ingroup

favoritism, 134

moral standards, 134

solidarity, 124, 133, 134, 135, 136

instrumentality, instrumental

considerations, 29, 120, 190, 191,

199, 201, 206, 207

and power, 207

229

Index

interdependency, 173

of actors, group members, 114, 150

of citizens for the provision of their

needs, 210

networks, 114

with other people, 121

interest(s), 105–106

collective, 107, 173, 205

expressive, 106

individual, social, 103, 114, 203

instrumental, 106

shared, 183

intergenerational solidarity, relations,

145, 146, 150, 151, 157, 159, 187

inner obligations to, 160

macro- and microsocial dimensions

of, 162

negative consequences of, 160

state-based, 165

Isherwood, B., 32, 141

Jong-Gierveld, J. de, 157, 158, 164

keeping-while-giving, 61, 79, 96

kin, 144

interdependence among, 144

kinship

distance, 25

dues, 144

support, 144

systems, 115

Klein, M., 64–66, 68

Kula, 56–59, 61, 199

gifts, 88

ritual, 108–109

Kulis, S., 158–159

KЁunemund, H., 164

Lane, R., 184

Lasch, C., 175

Lґevi-Strauss, C., 2, 8, 9, 34, 76, 78, 79,

102, 109–110, 112, 119, 121, 200, 202,

203

Lindenberg, S., 112

Local Exchange Trade System(s), LETS,

181, 188

looking-glass-self, 44

loyalty, 106, 111, 115, 160

internal group, 200, 206

mutual, 205

with the family, 145

Malinowski, B., 2, 8, 9, 25, 34, 41, 58–59,

63, 76, 77, 78, 87, 88, 102, 109, 110,

112, 118, 119, 199, 203

Mannheim, K., 147, 148

Manschot, H., 5

market (exchange), 50, 51, 92, 105, 117

economy, 19, 21, 87, 89, 90

model, 30, 49

market pricing, 21, 24–25, 29

Marx, K., 113

Matthew effect, 141, 142, 193

of gift giving, 138–139

Mauss, M., 2, 3, 4, 9, 15, 28, 34, 41, 59, 60,

76, 109, 112, 116–117, 118, 119, 199,

200, 203

threefold obligation, 116

Mayhew, L., 9, 112, 115–116

McCracken, G., 20, 28

Mead, G. H., 173

Merton, R., 138

morals and markets, 117

motives, motivations (of, for solidarity),

192, 195, 199–201, 206

affective and normative, 116

equality, 199

to give, 95, 119

instrumental, 112, 124

personal gain, 197

power, 200

self-interest, self-interested, 124, 197,

201

utilitarian, 112

narcissism, narcissistic offense(s), 175,

186

growing, 175

network society, 177–178, 210

obligation(s), 162

feelings of (moral), 161

inner, 165

institutionalized, 106

230

Index

internalized moral, normative, 35, 46,

102, 107, 150, 153, 203

morality of mutual, 208

mutual, 110

reciprocal, 117

to return ag ift, to give in return, 43,

60, 109, 117

offerings, 47

religious, 47

Olson, M., 114

organ(s), 84–85

donation, 3, 36

Osteen, M., 4

Pahl, R. E., 42

Parsons, T., 2, 9, 102, 106–107, 112, 113

Pessers, D., 5

philanthropic particularism, 139–142,

193

poisoned cup, 51

poisoners, 96

Portes, A., 135

potlatch, 28, 47, 71, 109

power, power relationship, 9, 23, 24, 27,

28, 47, 77, 78, 109, 120, 191, 193, 201,

207

abuse, 95

and authority relations, 119

asymmetrical, and gender, 92–94

considerations of, 206

differences, 38

equivalent, 89

exercise, 196, 200

hierarchy, 23

inequality (between women and

men), 80, 86, 95, 206

need for, lust for, 51, 200

position, 23

unequal, 70

prestige, 23, 28, 47, 108, 119

need for, 51

principle of give-and-take, 199

problem of order, 2, 102, 189

Putnam, R., 184, 188

quid pro quo, 24, 119

reasoning, 24

rational choice(s), 24

basic assumption of, 203

inspired theory, theorists, 22, 104, 112,

114, 203

perspective, 112–114

rational egoists, 203

rationality, 105, 114

collective, 114

economic, 103

and individual and collective

interests, 114

Raub,W., 112, 114

reciprocity, reciprocity relations, 7, 9, 29,

36, 48, 162, 192, 195, 201–205, 207,

209

abstract, impersonal, 36, 205

asymmetrical, 119

(a)symmetrical, 69, 86–91

balanced, 110

chain of, 67

concrete and personal, 205

delayed, postponed, 36, 84, 182

of desires and needs, 210

equivalent, 86–89, 108, 193, 205

expectation(s) of, 28, 110, 146

friendliness and, 68

generalized, 110

of the humanity of self and other, 197

ideaof, 146

of the identity of giver and recipient,

191

immediate, 178, 179

informal social contract created by,

203

of the interdependency of self and

other, 197

issue of recognition, 196

lack of, 160, 197

models of, 80

as moral basis of solidarity, 191

mutual, 196

need for (self-), 186

negative (side of), 110, 138

norm of, 111

of the other as a human being, 195

of otherness, other’s human worth,

195, 206

231

Index

reciprocity, reciprocity relations (cont.)

pattern(s) of, 190

of personal value, 210

positive (side of), 67, 138

principle (of), 7, 29, 36, 39, 41, 54, 66,

68, 69, 73, 85, 109, 116, 191, 195

as a principle of exclusion, 141, 193

reciprocal, 191, 196

recognition, 195–197

role of power in, 111

rule of, 138

of service and counterservice, 67, 72

sociological pattern of, 68

Regt, A. de, 161

Rein, M., 164

reputation, 47

respect. See (dis)respect

risk society, 177

ritual(s), ritualism, 18, 38, 120–122, 193,

205–206

concerning the cycle of life and death,

88

functions for solidarity, 116

meanings and functions of, 120

religious, 21, 120

slaughtering, 204

rivalry, 47

Roberts, R., 151

Rojek, C., 5, 198

Rossi, A. and P., 152–155

sacrifice, 4, 11–12, 16–18, 19, 190, 201,

207

abstract, anonymous, 204, 207

of anonymous others’ lives, human

lives, 204, 205

concept, notion of, 33, 190, 203–205

concrete, personal, 204

idea, ideals of, 204, 205

of individual autonomy and freedom,

individuality, 204, 205

personal, 207

religious, 205

Sahlins, M., 2, 25, 60–61, 110, 112, 118

Salomon, L. M., 140

Schudson, M., 188

Schwartz, B., 35, 43, 56, 70–71

selectivity (of solidarity), 192, 198, 207

self, self-, 173

assertion (of the), 175, 186

assertive, 173, 186, 195, 197

control, 184

interest-driven, 196

as mirror of other people’s beliefs,

173

regulation, 184

restraint, 185

social nature of the, 173

strengthening and reinforcement of

the, 209

self-interest, 9, 46, 48–49, 51, 103, 105,

109, 112, 182, 190, 199, 201, 206, 207,

209

rational, 115

and rational choice (theory), 112, 199,

203

Seneca, 71

Sennett, R., 172–173, 210

Sensenbrenner, J., 135

Shils, E., 184

Simmel, G., 2, 8, 16–17, 33, 67–68, 74, 77,

110–111, 112, 113, 119, 136, 141, 170,

197–198

Smith, A., 56–61, 103, 173

social capital, 135, 192

social currents, 181

social distance, 195, 197–199, 206

social order, 101–102, 112–114, 119, 120,

193

basis of, 189

social relationships, communal and

associative, 105–106

solidarity, 11, 46

abstract, anonymous, 170, 180, 187,

209

affectional, affectual, 151–152, 153

associational, 151–152, 153

changes in contemporary, 194

civil, 11, 180, 184–187, 188, 195, 197, 207,

209

collective expressions of, 181

collective state-based, 136

concrete, 198

consensual, 151–152, 153

232

Index

dimensions of, 195

empirical manifestations of, 136–142

and exclusion, 135

external risks, 133–135

functional, 151–152, 153

global (and abstract), 188, 198

inclusive power of, 134

informal, 209

inherent failures of, 142–143, 193

as an inherently positive concept,

133

internal risks, 133, 135

international, 126, 194

intragroup, 200

local (and global), 180, 181, 199

main types of, 107

mechanical, 104–105, 116, 146, 150, 180,

187, 189, 194, 208, 212

model, 151

modern, 107

negative (aspects, effects,

manifestations, outcomes of), 124,

132–136, 192, 193, 195, 205

new forms of, 195

normative, 151–152

norms, values, and emotions as basis

of, 112

organic, 12, 104–105, 116, 121, 150, 180,

189, 208, 210, 211, 212

political, 181

positive (effects, manifestations,

outcomes of), 124, 195, 205

principle of exclusion or selection,

125, 139, 143, 193

rational choice approach of, 113

reciprocity aspect of, 183

revolutionary, 197

risks involved in, 133

segmented, 12, 208–212

selective character, excluding nature

of, 124, 132, 138, 140

small-scale interpersonal, 207

social, 101

and social class, 158

and social distance, 123

structural, 151–152

survival value of, 210

systems of, 115

thick, 198–199

thin, 198–199

traditional, 180–181, 195

transformation from organic to

segmented, 212

two-edged sword, 125, 136–142

Spark, G., 160

Spencer, H., 103

status, 23, 24, 28, 108, 109, 119, 193

Strathern, M., 8, 77, 92–93

Straus, V., 185

substitution thesis, 163–165

Swaan, A. de, 112, 114–115

tie signs, 16, 43

Titmuss, R. M., 20, 36, 84

TЁonnies, F., 103–104, 105, 106, 133,

150

tournaments of value, 31

Trivers, R., 203

trust. See (dis)trust

Tsvetajeva, M., 69–70

Turner, B., 5, 198

utilitarianism, 103

British, 103

utility, 9, 112

considerations, 24

violence, 185

criminal, 185

increase in, 185

by youthful perpetrators, 185

volunteer

profile of the, 129

voluntary, volunteer work, 9, 142, 187,

193

Waal, F. de, 57, 68, 73, 198, 202, 203

Wacquant, L., 134

Waldinger, R., 135, 142

Walker, A., 155

Weber, M., 2, 9, 102, 105–106, 112

Weiner, A., 3, 8, 61, 78–79, 80, 88–89, 90,

96

welfare regimes, 145

233

Index

welfare state(s), 145–146, 162, 163, 169,

210

caring arrangements, 145

collective arrangements of, 199

dissatisfaction with, 171–172

modernWestern, 176

organized, formal solidarity of the,

209

provisions, 147

social policy for aged people,

162

Wilson, G., 160, 162

Wilson, J., 134

Wit, T. de, 5

Wolfe, A., 125, 179–180, 184

women, 76–97

autonomous share in gift exchange,

79

availability as caregivers, 146

exchange of, 77, 109

generosity, 80, 85, 192

gift exchange (role in), 76, 77, 79

kinkeeping role, 151

labor participation, 128

as objects of gift exchange, 77, 79

participation in volunteer work, 128

as the supreme gift, 76

Wuthnow, R., 125

Zoll, R., 5

234