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But these primitive classifications have a no less direct in­terest for the origins of religious thought.

They imply that all the things thus classed in a single clan or a single phratry are closely related both to each other and to the thing serving as the totem of this clan or phratry. When an Austra­lian of the Port Mackay tribe says that the sun, snakes, etc., are of the Yungaroo phratry, he does not mean merely to apply a com­mon, but none the less a purely conventional, nomenclature to

these different things; the word has an objective signification for him. He believes that " alligators really are Yungaroo and that kangaroos are Wootaroo. The sun is Yungaroo, the moon Woot-aroo, and so on for the constellations, trees, plants, etc."1 An internal bond attaches them to the group in which they are placed; they are regular members of it. It is said that they belong to the group,2 just exactly as the individual men make a part of it;

consequently, the same sort of a relation unites them to these latter. Men regard the things in their clan as their relatives or associates ; they call them their friends and think that they are made out of the same flesh as themselves.3 Therefore, between the two there are elective affinities and quite special relations of agreement. Things and people have a common name, and in a certain way they naturally understand each other and har­monize with one another. For example, when a Wakelbura of the Mallera phratry is buried, the scaffold upon which the body is exposed " must be made of the wood of some tree belonging to the Mallera phratry.4 The same is true for the branches that cover the corpse. If the deceased is of the Banbe class, a Banbe tree must be used. In this same tribe, a magician can use in his art only those things which belong to his own phratry;5 since the others are strangers to him, he does not know how to make them obey him. Thus a bond of mystic sympathy unites each individual to those beings, whether living or not, which are asso­ciated with him ; the result of this is a belief in the possibility of deducing what he will do or what he has done from what they are doing. Among these same Wakelbura, when a man dreams that he has killed an animal belonging to a certain social division, he expects to meet a man of this same division the next day.6 Inversely, the things attributed to a clan or phratry cannot be used against the members of this clan or phratry. Among the Wotjobaluk, each phratry has its own special trees. Now in hunting an animal of the Gurogity phratry, only arms whose wood is taken from trees of the other phratry may be used, and vice versa ; otherwise the hunter is sure to miss his aim.7 The native is convinced that the arrow would turn of itself and refuse, so to speak, to hit a kindred and friendly animal.

Thus the men of the clan and the things which are classified in it form by their union a solid system, all of whose parts are united and vibrate sympathetically. This organization, which at first may have appeared to us as purely logical, is at the same time moral. A single principle animates it and makes its unity: this is the totem. Just as a man who belongs to the Crow clan has within him something of this animal, so the rain, since it is of the same clan and belongs to the same totem, is also necessarily considered as being " the same thing as a crow " ; for the same reason, the moon is a black cockatoo, the sun a white cockatoo, every black-nut tree a pelican, etc. All the beings arranged in a single clan, whether men, animals, plants or inanimate objects, are merely forms of the totemic being. This is the meaning of the formula which we have just cited and this is what makes the two really of the same species : all are really of the same flesh in the sense that all partake of the nature of the totemic animal. Also, the qualifiers given them are those given to the totem.1 The Wotjobaluk give the name Mir both to the totem and to the things classed with it.2 It is true that among the Arunta, where visible traces of classification still exist, as we shall see, different words designate the totem and the other beings placed with it; however, the .name given to these latter bears witness to the close relations which unite them to the totemic animal. It is said that they are its intimates, its associates, its friends ; it is believed that they are inseparable from it.3 So there is a feeling that these are very closely related things.

But we also know that the totemic animal is a sacred being. All the things that are classified in the clan of which it is the emblem have this same character, because in one sense, they are animals of the same species, just as the man is. They, too, are sacred, and the classifications which locate them in relation to the other things of the universe, by that very act give them a place in the religious world. For this reason, tlie animals or plants among these may not be eaten freely by the human members of the clan. Thus in the Mount Gambier tribe, the men whose totem is a certain non-poisonous snake must not merely refrain from eating the flesh of this snake; that of seals, eels, etc., is also forbidden to them.4 If, driven by necessity, they do eat some of it, they must at least attenuate the sacrilege by expiatory rites, just as if they had eaten the totem itself.5 Among the

Euahlayi, where it is permitted to use the totem, but not to abuse it, the same rule is applied to the other members of the cla.Q.1 Among the Arunta, the interdictions protecting the totemic animal extend over the associated animals ;2 and in any case, particular attention must be given to these latter.3 The sentiments inspired by the two are identical.4

But the fact that the things thus attached to the totem are not of a different nature from it, and consequently have a re­ligious character, is best proved by the fact that on certain occasions they fulfil the same functions. They are accessory or secondary totems, or, according to an expression now conse­crated by usage, they are sub-totems.5 It is constantly happening in the clans that under the influence of various sympathies, par­ticular affinities are forming, smaller groups and more limited associations arise, which tend to lead a relatively autonomous life and to form a new subdivision like a sub-clan within the larger one. In order to distinguish and individualize itself, this sub-clan needs a special totem or, consequently, a sub-totem.6 Now the totems of these secondary groups are chosen from among the things classified under the principal totem. So they are always almost totems and the slightest circumstance is enough to make them actually so. There is a latent totemic nature in them, which shows itself as soon as conditions permit

it or demand it. It thus happens that a single individual has two totems, a principal totem common to the whole clan and a sub-totem which is special to the sub-clan of which lie is a member. This is something analogous to the nomen and cognomen of the Romans.1

Sometimes we see a sub-clan emancipate itself completely and become an autonomous group and an independent clan ; then, the sub-totem, on its side, becomes a regular totem. One tribe where this process of segmentation has been pushed to the limit, so to speak, is the Arunta. The information contained in the first book of Spencer and Gillen showed that there were some sixty totems among the Arunta;2 but the recent researches of Strehlow have shown the number to be much larger. He counted no less than 442.3 Spencer and Gillen did not exaggerate at all when they said, " In fact, there is scarcely an object, animate or inanimate, to be found in the country occupied by the natives which does not give its name to some totemic group."4 Now this multitude of totems, whose number is prodigious when com­pared to the population, is due to the fact that under special circumstances, the original clans have divided and sub-divided infinitely ; consequently nearly all the sub-totems have passed to the stage of totems.

This has been definitely proved by the observations of Streh­low. Spencer and Gillen cited only certain isolated cases of associated totems.5 Strehlow has shown that this is in reality an absolutely general organization. He has been able to draw up a table where nearly all the totems of the Arunta are classified according to this principle : all are attached, either as associates or as auxiliaries, to some sixty principal totems.6 The first are believed to be in the service of the second.7 This state of

dependence is very probably the echo of a time when the " allies " of to-day were only sub-totems, and consequently when the tribe contained only a small number of clans subdivided into sub-clans. Numerous survivals confirm this hypotliesis. It fre­quently happens that two groups thus associated have the same totemic emblem : now this unity of emblem is explicable only if the two groups were at first only one.1 The relation of the two clans is also shown by the part and the interest that each one takes in the rites of the other. The two cults are still only imperfectly separated ; this is very probably because they were at first completely intermingled.2 Tradition explains the bonds which unite them by imagining that formerly the two clans occupied neighbouring places.3 In other cases, the myth says expressly that one of them was derived from the other. It is related that at first the associated animal belonged to the species still serving as principal totem ; it differentiated itself at a later period. Thus the chantunga birds, which are associated with the witchetly grub to-day, were witchetly grubs in fabulous times, who later transformed themselves into birds.  Two species wliich are now attached to the honey-ant were formerly honey-ants, etc.4 This transformation of a sub-totem into a totem goes on by imperceptible degrees, so that in certain cases the situation is undecided, and it is hard to say whether one is dealing with a principal totem or a secondary one.5 As Howitt says in regard to the Wotjobaluk, there are sub-totems which are totems in formation.6 Thus the different things classified in a clan constitute, as it were, so many nuclei around which new totemic cults are able to form. This is the best proof of the religious sentiments which they inspire. If they did not have a sacred character, they could not be promoted so easily to the same dignity as the things which are sacred before all others, the regular totems.

So the field of religious things extends well beyond the limits within which it seemed to be confined at first. It embraces not only the totemic animals and the human members of the clan ; but since no known thing exists that is not classified in a clan and under a totem, there is likewise nothing which does not receive

to some degree something of a religious character. When, in the religions which later come into being, the gods properly so-called appear, each of them will be set over a special category of natural phenomena, this one over the sea, that one over the air, another over the harvest or over fruits, etc., and each of these provinces of nature will be believed to draw what life there is in it from the god upon whom it depends. This division of nature among the different divinities constitutes the conception which these religions give us of the universe. Now so long as humanity has not passed the phase of totemism, the different totems of the tribe fulfil exactly the same functions that will later fall upon the divine personalities. In the Mount Gambier tribe, which we have taken as our principal example, there are ten clans ; conse­quently the entire world is divided into ten classes, or rather into ten families, each of which has a special totem as its basis. It is from this basis that the things classed in the clan get all their reality, for they are thought of as variant forms of the totemic being ; to return to our example, the rain, thunder, lightning, clouds, hail and winter are regarded as different sorts of crows. When brought together, these ten families of things make up a complete and systematic representation of the world; and this representation is religious, for religious notions furnish its basis. Far from being limited to one or two categories of beings, the domain of totemic religion extends to the final limits of the known universe. Just like the Greek religion, it puts the divine everywhere; the celebrated formula vavra -v\ripri Qewv (everything is full of the gods), might equally well serve it as motto.

However, if totemism is to be represented thus, the notion of it which has long been held must be modified on one essential point. Until the discoveries of recent years, it was made to consist entirely in the cult of one particular totem, and it was defined as the religion of the clan. From this point of view, each tribe seemed to have as many totemic religions, each inde­pendent of the others, as it had different clans. This conception was also in harmony with the idea currently held of the clan ; in fact, this was regarded as an autonomous society,1 more or less closed to other similar societies, or having only external and superficial relations with these latter. But the reality is more complex. Undoubtedly, the cult of each totem has its home in the corresponding clan ; it is there, and only there, that it is celebrated ; it is members of the clan who have charge of it;

it is through them that it is transmitted from one generation to another, along with the beliefs which are its basis. But it is also true that the different totemic cults thus practised within a single tribe do not have a parallel development, though re­maining ignorant of each other, as if each of them constituted a complete and self-sufficing religion. On the contrary, they mutually imply each other ; they are only the parts of a single whole, the elements of a single religion. The men of one clan never regard the beliefs of neighbouring clans with that in­difference, scepticism or hostility which one religion ordinarily inspires for another which is foreign to it; they partake of these beliefs themselves. The Crow people are also convinced that the Snake people have a mythical serpent as ancestor, and that they owe special virtues and marvellous powers to this origin. And have we not seen that at least in certain conditions, a man may eat a totem that is not his own only after he has observed certain ritual formalities ? Especially, he must demand the permission of the men of this totem, if any are present. So for him also, this food is not entirely profane ; he also admits that there are intimate affinities between the members of a clan of which he is not a member and the animal whose name they bear. Also, this community of belief is sometimes shown in the cult. If in theory the rites concerning a totem can be performed only by the men of this totem, nevertheless representatives of different clans frequently assist at them. It sometimes happens that their part is not simply that of spectators ; it is true that they do not officiate, but they decorate the officiants and prepare the service. They themselves have an interest in its being celebrated ; therefore, in certain tribes, it is they who invite the qualified clan to proceed with the ceremonies.1 There is even a whole cycle of rites which must take place in the presence of the assembled tribe : these are the totemic ceremonies of initiation.2

Finally, the totemic organization, such as we have just described it, must obviously be the result of some sort of an indistinct understanding between all the members of the tribe. It is impossible that each clan should have made its beliefs in an absolutely independent manner; it is absolutely necessary that the cults of the different totems should be in some way adjusted to each other, since they complete one another exactly. In fact, we have seen that normally a single totem is not repeated twice in the same tribe, and that the whole universe is divided up among the totems thus constituted in such a way that the same object is not found in two different clans. So methodical

a division could never have been made without an agreement, tacit or planned, in which the whole

tribe participated. So the group of beliefs which thus arise are partially (but only partially) a tribal affair.1

To sum up, then, in order to form an adequate idea of totemisra, we must not confine ourselves within the limits of the clan, but must consider the tribe as a whole. It is true that the particular cult of each clan enjoys a very great autonomy ; we can now see that it is within the clan that the active ferment of the religious life takes place. But it is also true that these cults fit into each other and the totemic religion is a complex system formed by their union, just as Greek polytheism was made by the union of all the particu­lar cults addressed to the different divinities. We have just shown that, thus understood, totemism also has it cosmology.