R E F E R E N C E S

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 
119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 
153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 
170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 

Introduction

Barnard, C. The Functions of the Executive Thirtieth Anniversary Edition. Cambridge,Mass.:

Harvard University, 1968. (Originally published 1938.)

Chapter One

NLP Learning Systems Corporation. NLP in Action: Personal and Professional Development

Workbook/Manual. Dallas: NLP Learning Systems Corporation, 1993.

Rosenberg, M. Nonviolent Communication, A Language of Life. (2nd ed.) Encinitas, Calif.:

Puddle Dancer Press, 2003.

Schwarz, R. M. The Skilled Facilitator. (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

Wilson Learning Company. Versatile Salesperson Reference Handbook. Eden Prairie:

Wilson Learning Company, 1987.

Chapter Two

Argyris, C. Intervention Theory and Method: A Behavioral Science View. Reading,Mass.:

Addison-Wesley, 1970.

Argyris, C., and Schön, D. A. Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. San

Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974.

Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.

Kaplan, R. E. “The Conspicuous Absence of Evidence That Process Consultation Enhances

Task Performance.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1979, 15, 346–360.

Salovey, P., and Mayer, J. D. “Emotional Intelligence.” Imagination, Cognition, and Personality,

1990, 9, 185–211.

Senge, P. M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New

York: Doubleday, 1990.

Chapter Three

Berne, E. Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy. New York: Grove Press, 1961.

Bleandonu, G.Wilfred Bion: His Life and Works, 1897–1979. London: Other Press, 1998.

Cini, M. A. “Group Newcomers: From Disruption to Innovation.” Group Facilitation: A

Research and Applications Journal, 2001, 3, 3–13.

Cooperrider, D. L., and Dutton, J. E. (eds.). Organizational Dimensions of Global Change—

No Limits to Cooperation. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1999.

Gardner, H.Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

Gardner, H. Intelligence Reframed. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.

Jung, C. G. Psychological Reflections. New York: HarperCollins, 1961.

Katz, D., and Kahn, R. L. The Social Psychology of Organizations. (2nd ed.) New York:Wiley,

1978.

Keirsey, D., and Bates, M. Please Understand Me. (4th ed.) Del Mar, Calif.: Prometheus

Nemesis Press, 1994.

Kotter, J. P. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.

Marston,W.M. Emotions of Normal People. London: Kegan, Paul, 1928.

Miscisin, M. Showing Our True Colors. Riverside, Calif.: True Colors, 2001.

Ritberger, C. What Color Is Your Life. Carlsbad, Calif.: Hay House, 1999.

Rogers, C. R. Client Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London:

Constable, 1995. (Originally published 1951.)

Schein, E. Organizational Culture and Leadership. (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

Stern, G. J. The Drucker Foundation Self-Assessment Tool Process Guide. (Rev. ed.) San Francisco:

Jossey-Bass, 1999.

Tuckman, B. “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups.” Psychological Bulletin, 1965, 63,

384–399.

Tuckman, B.W., and Jensen, M. A. “Stages of Small Group Development Revisited.” Group

and Organisational Studies, 1977, 2, 419–427.

Chapter Four

Block, P. Flawless Consulting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981.

Gilley, J.W., Boughton, N.W., and Maycunich, A. The Performance Challenge. New York:

Perseus Books, 1999.

Institute of Cultural Affairs in the U.S.A. Participatory Strategic Planning Course Manual.

Phoenix, Ariz.: Institute of Cultural Affairs in the U.S.A., 1996.

Institute of Cultural Affairs in the U.S.A. Group Facilitation Methods Course Manual.

Phoenix, Ariz.: Institute of Cultural Affairs in the U.S.A., 2000.

Pike, R.W. Creative Training Techniques Handbook.Minneapolis,Minn.: Lakewood Books,

1989.

Senge, P. M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New

York: Doubleday, 1990.

Spencer, L. J.Winning Through Participation. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1989.

610 References

U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards

and Technology, Baldrige National Quality Program. 2004 Criteria for Performance

Excellence. Gaithersburg,Md.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.

Chapter Five

Bender, T. Feng Shui Meditation Journal. Berkeley, Calif.: Amber Lotus Publishing, 2003.

Bostrom, R.,Watson, R., and Kinney, S. (eds.). Computer Augmented Teamwork: A Guided

Tour. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.

Hickling, A. “‘Decision Spaces’: A Scenario About Designing Appropriate Rooms for Group

Decision Management.” In E. Eden and J. Radford (eds.), Tackling Strategic Problems:

The Role of Group Decision Support. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1990.

Jacobs, R.W. Real Time Strategic Change. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1994.

Senge, P. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York:

Doubleday, 1990.

Spencer, L. J.Winning Through Participation. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1989.

Weisbord M., and Janoff, S. Future Search: An Action Guide to Finding Common Ground in

Organizations and Communities. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1995.

Williams, D. “Setting the Stage: Aesthetics, Feng Shui, and the Design of the Mediation

Room,”Unpublished manuscript, 2003.

Wydra, N. Designing Your Happiness: A Contemporary Look at Feng Shui. Torrance, Calif.:

Heian International, 1995.

Chapter Six

Covey, S. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989.

Meeker, L., Fischer, S., and Michalak, B.High Performance Teamwork. Amherst,Mass.: HRD

Press, 1994.

Reina,D., and Reina, M. Trust and Betrayal in the Workplace. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler,

1999.

Shaw, B. Trust in the Balance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.

Chapter Seven

Berry, B., and Stewart, G. L. “Composition, Process, and Performance in Self-Managed

Groups: The Role of Personality.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1997, 82, 62–78.

Bouchard, T. J.“Personality, Problem-Solving Procedure, and Performance in Self-Managed

Groups: The Role of Personality.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1969, 82, 62–78.

Bradley, J.,White, B. J., and Mennecke, B. E. “Teams and Tasks: A Temporal Framework for

the Effects of Interpersonal Interventions on Team Performance.” Small Group Research,

2003, 34, 353–387.

References 611

Brown, V. R., and Paulus, P. B.“Making Group Brainstorming More Effective: Recommendations

from an Associative Memory Perspective.” Current Directions in Psychological

Science, 2002, 11, 208–212.

Camacho, L. M., and Paulus, P. B. “The Role of Social Anxiousness in Group Brainstorming.”

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, 68, 1071–1080.

Coskun, H. “The Effects of Outgroup Comparison, Social Context, Intrinsic Motivation,

and Collective Identity in Brainstorming Groups.”Unpublished doctoral dissertation,

University of Texas at Arlington, 2000.

Coskun, H., Paulus, P. B., Brown,V., and Sherwood, J. J. “Cognitive Stimulation and Problem

Presentation in Idea Generation Groups.” Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and

Practice, 2000, 4, 307–329.

Delbecq, A. L., Van de Ven, A. H., and Gustafson, D. H. “Guidelines for Conducting NGT

Meetings.” In A. L. Delbecq, A. H.Van de Ven, and D. H. Gustafson (eds.), Group Techniques

for Program Planning: A Guide to Nominal Group and Delphi Processes. Middleton,

Wis.: Greenbriar Press, 1986.

Dennis, A. R., and Williams, M. L. “Electronic Brainstorming: Theory, Research, and

Future Directions.” In P. B. Paulus and B. A. Nijstad (eds.), Group Creativity. New York:

Oxford University Press, 2003.

Devine, D. J., and Philips, J. L. “Do Smarter Teams Do Better: A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive

Ability and Team Performance.” Small Group Research, 2001, 32, 507–532.

Diehl, M., and Stroebe, W. “Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Groups: Toward

the Solution of a Riddle.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, 53,

497–509.

Dugosh, K. L., Paulus, P. B., Roland, E. J., and Yang, H. C. “Cognitive Stimulation in Brainstorming.”

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 79, 722–735.

Geschka, H., Schaude, G. R., and Schlicksupp, H.“Modern Techniques for Solving Problems.”

Chemical Engineering, Aug. 1973, pp. 91–97.

Grawitch, M. J.,Munz,D. C., and Kramer, T. J. “Effects of Member Mood States on Creative

Performance in Temporary Workgroups.” Group Dynamics, 2003, 7, 41–54.

Janis, I. Groupthink. (2nd ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.

Janis, I., and Mann, L. Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and

Commitment. New York: Free Press, 1977.

John-Steiner,V. Creative Collaboration. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Karau, S. J., and Williams, K. D. “Social Loafing: A Meta-Analytic Review and Theoretical

Integration.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, 65, 681–706.

Kramer, T. J., Fleming, G. P., and Mannis, S. M. “Improving Face-to-Face Brainstorming

Through Modeling and Facilitation.” Small Group Research, 2001, 32, 533–557.

Larey, T. S., and Paulus, P. B. “Social Comparison and Goal Setting in Brainstorming

Groups.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1995, 25, 1579–1596.

Lerner, J. S., and Tetlock, P. E. “Accounting for the Effects of Accountability.” Psychological

Bulletin, 1999, 125, 255–275.

612 References

Milliken, F. J., Bartel, C. A., and Kurtzberg, T. R. “Diversity and Creativity in Workgroups:

A Dynamic Perspective on the Affective and Cognitive Processes That Link Diversity

and Performance.” In P. B. Paulus and B. A. Nijstad (eds.), Group Creativity. New York:

Oxford University Press, 2003.

Nemeth, C. J., and Nemeth-Brown, Z. “Better Than Individuals: The Potential Benefits of

Dissent and Diversity for Group Creativity.” In P. B. Paulus and B. A. Nijstad (eds.),

Group Creativity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Offner, A. K., Kramer, T. J., and Winter, J. P. “The Effects of Facilitation, Recording, and

Pauses on Group Brainstorming.” Small Group Research, 1996, 27, 283–298.

Osborn, A. F. Applied Imagination. New York: Scribner, 1957.

Oxley, N. L., Dzindolet, M. T., and Paulus, P. B.“The Effects of Facilitators on the Performance

of Brainstorming Groups.” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 1996, 11, 633–646.

Paulus, P. B. “Developing Consensus About Groupthink After All These Years.” Organizational

Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 1998, 73, 362–374.

Paulus, P. B., and Brown, V. “Enhancing Ideational Creativity in Groups: Lessons Learned

from Research on Brainstorming.” In P. B. Paulus and B. A. Nijstad (eds.), Group Creativity.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Paulus, P. B., Larey, T. S., and Ortega, A. H.“Performance and Perceptions of Brainstormers

in an Organizational Setting.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 1995, 17, 249–265.

Paulus, P. B.,Nakui, T., and Putman,V. L. “Group Brainstorming,Meetings, and Teamwork:

Some Rules for the Road to Innovation.” In L. Thompson and H. Choi (eds.), Creativity

and Innovations in Organizational Teams. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, forthcoming.

Paulus, P. B., and Nijstad, B. (eds.).Group Creativity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Paulus, P. B., and Yang, H. C. “Idea Generation in Groups: A Basis for Creativity in Organizations.”

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2000, 82, 76–87.

Paulus, P. B., and others. “Social Influence Process in Computer Brainstorming.” Basic and

Applied Social Psychology, 1996, 18, 3–14.

Paulus, P. B., and others. “Social and Cognitive Influences in Group Brainstorming:

Predicting Production Gains and Losses.” European Social Psychology Review, 2002, 12,

299–325.

Siegel, G. B. Mass Interviewing and the Marshalling of Ideas to Improve Performance: The

Crawford Slip Method. Lanham,Md.: University Press of America, 1996.

Smith, S. “The Constraining Effects of Initial Ideas.” In P. B. Paulus and B. A. Nijstad (eds.),

Group Creativity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Stasser, G., and Birchmeier, Z. “Group Creativity and Collective Choice.” In P. B. Paulus

and B. A. Nijstad (eds.), Group Creativity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Sutton, R. I., and Hargadon, A.“Brainstorming Groups in Context: Effectiveness in a Product

Design Firm.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 1996, 41, 685–718.

Taylor, D.W., Berry, P. C., and Block, C. H. “Does Group Participation When Using Brainstorming

Facilitate or Inhibit Creative Thinking?” Administrative Science Quarterly,

1958, 3, 23–47.

References 613

Van Gundy, A. Techniques of Structured Problem Solving. (2nd ed.) New York: Van Nostrand

Reinhold, 1988.

Watson,W. E., Kumar, K., and Michaelson, L. K. “Cultural Diversity’s Impact on Interaction

Process and Performance: Comparing Homogeneous and Diverse Task Groups.”

Academy of Management Journal, 1993, 36, 590–602.

Chapter Eight

Kaner, S., Lind, L., Toldi, C., Fisk, S., and Berger, D. Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory

Decision-Making. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 1996.

Peck, M. S. The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace. New York: Simon &

Schuster, 1987.

Rogers, C., and Roethlisberger, F. J. “Barriers and Gateways to Communication.” Harvard

Business Review, 1991, 69(6), 105–111. (Originally published 1952.)

Tuckman, B. “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups.” Psychological Bulletin, 1965,

384–399.

Chapter Nine

Benne, K., and Sheats, P. “Functional Roles of Group Members.” Journal of Social Issues,

1948, 4, 41–49.

Chilberg, J. “Exploring the Role of the Facilitator: A Typology of Formal Task Group Communication.”

Paper presented at the Eastern Communication Association Convention,

Providence, R.I., 1985.

Chilberg, J. “A Review of Group Process Designs for Facilitating Communication in

Problem-Solving Groups.”Management Communication Quarterly, 1989, 3, 51–70.

Chilberg, J., and Riley, M. “Brainstorming in a Multicultural World.” Paper presented at

the Eastern Communication Association Convention, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995.

Collins, B. E., and Guetzkow,H. A Social Psychology of Group Processes for Decision Making.

New York:Wiley, 1964.

Delbecq, A. L., Van de Ven, A. H., and Gustafson, D. H. “Guidelines for Conducting NGT

Meetings.” In A. Delbecq, A. H.Van de Ven, and D. H. Gustafson (eds.), Group Techniques

for Program Planning: A Guide to Nominal Group and Delphi Processes.Middleton Wis.:

Greenbriar Press, 1986.

Doyle, M., and Straus, D. How to Make Meetings Work. New York:Wyden, 1976.

Fox,W.M. Effective Group Problem Solving: How to Broaden Participation, Improve Decision

Making, and Increase Commitment to Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987.

Gibb, J. R. “Defensive Communication.” Journal of Communication, 1961, 11, 141–148.

Hackman, J. R. (ed.). Groups That Work (and Those That Don’t): Creating Conditions for

Effective Teamwork. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

Hirokawa, R., and Salazar, A. “Task-Group Communication and Decision-Making

Performance.” In L. Frey, D. Gouran, and M. S. Poole (eds.), The Handbook of Group

Communication Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1991.

614 References

Jarboe, S. “Group Communication and Creative Processes.” In L. Frey, D. Gouran, and M.

S. Poole (eds.), The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research. Thousand

Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1999.

Jensen, A. D., and Chilberg, J. C. Small Group Communication: Theory and Application.

Belmont, Calif.:Wadsworth, 1991.

Keyton, J. “Relational Communication in Groups.” In L. Frey, D. Gouran, and M. S. Poole

(eds.), The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks,

Calif., Sage, 1999.

Osborn, A. F. Applied Imagination. New York: Scribner, 1982.

Poole, M. S. “Procedures for Managing Meetings: Social and Technological Innovations.”

In R. A. Swanson and B. O. Knapp (eds.), Innovative Meeting Management. Austin, Tex.:

3M Meeting Management Institute, 1991.

Poole, M. S. “Group Communication Theory.” In L. Frey, D. Gouran, and M. S. Poole (eds.),

The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:

Sage, 1999.

Poole, M. S., and Salazar, A. J. “Group Communication Theory.” In L. Frey, D. Gouran, and

M. S. Poole (eds.), The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research. Thousand

Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1999.

Prince, G. M. The Practice of Creativity. New York: HarperCollins, 1970.

Sieberg, E. “Confirming and Disconfirming in an Organizational Setting.” In J. Owen,

P. Page, and G. Zimmerman (eds.), Communication in Organizational Settings. St. Paul,

Minn.:West, 1976.

Sunwolf, and Seibold,D. “The Impact of Formal Procedures on Group Processes,Members,

and Task Outcomes.” In L. Frey, D. Gouran, and M. S. Poole (eds.), The Handbook of

Group Communication Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1999.

Ulschak, F. L.,Nathanson, L., and Gillan, P. G. Small Group Problem Solving. Reading,Mass.:

Addison-Wesley, 1981.

Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. H., and Jackson, D. D. Pragmatics of Human Communication:

A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. New York: Norton, 1967.

Zarefsky, D. “Does Intellectual Diversity Always Serve Us Well?” Spectra, 1993, 29(4), 2–3.

Chapter Ten

Brunon, J. “Group Dynamics and Visual Thinking.” Journal of Architectural Education, 1971,

25(3), 53–54.

Doyle M., and Straus, D. How to Make Meetings Work. New York: Jove Books, 1976.

Grove Consultants International. “Grove Facilitation Model.” Oct. 2002. [http://www.grove.

com/about/model_facil.html].

Halprin, L., and Burns, J. Take Part: A Workshop Approach to Creativity. Cambridge,Mass.:

MIT Press, 1963.

Horn, R. Visual Language: Global Communication for the Twenty-First Century. Bainbridge

Island,Wash.:Macro VU Press, 1998.

References 615

Margulies, N., and Maal, N.Mapping Inner Space: Learning and Teaching Visual Mapping.

Tucson, Ariz.: Zephyr Press, 2002.

Miller, G. A. “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our

Capacity for Processing Information.” Psychological Review, 1956, 63, 81–97. [http://

www.well.com/user/smalin/miller.html]

Sibbet, D. Principles of Facilitation. San Francisco: Grove Consultants International, 2002.

Chapter Eleven

Burson, M. C. “Finding Clarity in the Midst of Conflict: Facilitating Dialogue and Skillful

Discussion Using a Model from the Quaker Tradition.” Group Facilitation: A Research

and Applications Journal, 2002, 4, 23–29.

Cini, M. A. “Group Newcomers: From Disruption to Innovation.” Group Facilitation: A

Research and Applications Journal, 2001, 3, 3–13.

Frankl, V. E.Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy. New York: Pocket

Books, 1985.

Gergen, K. J. Realities and Relationships: Soundings in Social Construction. Cambridge,Mass.:

Harvard University Press, 1994.

Janis, I. L., and Mann, L. Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and

Commitment. New York: Free Press, 1977.

Leong, F. L., and Wong, P.T.P. “Optimal Human Functioning from Cross-Cultural Perspectives:

Cultural Competence as an Organizing Framework.” In W. Bruce Walsh (ed.),

Counseling Psychology and Optimal Human Functioning. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 2003.

Maier, N.R.F. “Assets and Liabilities in Group Problem Solving: The Need for an Integrative

Function.” Psychological Review, 1967, 74, 239–249.

Maslow, A. Toward a Psychology of Being. (Rev. ed.) New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1968.

Maslow, A.Motivation and Personality. (Rev. ed.) New York: HarperCollins, 1970.

May, R. The Springs of Creative Living: A Study of Human Nature and God. New York:

Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1940.

May, R.Man’s Search for Himself. New York: Norton, 1953.

May, R. Psychology and the Human Dilemma. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1967.

Rogers, C. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.

Rogers, C. “The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change.”

Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1957, 21, 95–103.

Rogers, C. “Carl Rogers on the Development of the Person-Centered Approach.” Person-

Centered Review, 1986, 1, 257–259.

Schuman, S. “What to Look for in a Group Facilitator.” Quality Progress, 1996, 29(6), 69–72.

Schuman, S. P. “Believe in Doubt.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal,

2002, 4, 1.

Senge, P., and others. The Fifth Discipline Field Book: Strategies and Tools for Building a

Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

616 References

Sibbet, D. Principles of Facilitation: The Purpose and Potential of Leading Group Process. San

Francisco: Grove Consultants, 2002.

Sue, D.W., and Sue, D. Counseling the Culturally-Different: Theory and Practice. (3rd ed.)

New York:Wiley, 1999.

Triandis, H. C. Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder, Colo.:Westview Press, 1995.

Wong, P.T.P.“Meaning-Centered Counselling.” In P.T.P.Wong and P. S. Fry (eds.), The

Human Quest for Meaning: A Handbook of Psychological Research and Clinical Applications.

Mahawah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1998.

Wong, P.T.P.“Towards an Integrative Model of Meaning-Centered Counselling and Therapy.”

International Forum for Logotherapy, 1999, 22, 47–55.

Wong, P.T.P. “Logotherapy.” In G. Zimmer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy. Orlando,

Fla.: Academic Press, 2002a.

Wong, P.T.P. “Creating a Positive Meaningful Work Climate: A New Challenge for

Management and Leadership.” In B. Pattanayak and V. Gupta (eds.), Creating Performing

Organizations: International Perspective for Indian Management. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:

Sage, 2002b.

Wong, P.T.P. “Building Positive Communities.” INPM Positive Living Magazine, Oct. 2003.

[http://www.meaning.ca/articles/presidents_column/community_oct03.htm].

Wong, P.T.P., and Gupta, V. “The Positive Psychology of Transformative Organizations.”

In V. Gupta (ed.), Transformative Organizations. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2004.

Chapter Twelve

Chrislip, D. D. Collaborative Leadership Fieldbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

Fisher, C. J. “Like It or Not, Culture Matters: Linking Culture to Bottom Line Business

Performance.” Employee Relations Today, 2000, 27, 46–49.

Schein, E. H. Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985.

Straus, D. How to Make Collaboration Work: Powerful Ways to Build Consensus, Solve

Problems, and Make Decisions. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2002.

Vroom, V. H. “Educating Managers for Decision Making and Leadership.”Management

Decision, 2003, 40, 968–978.

Chapter Thirteen

Aretz, A., Bolen, T., and Devereux, K. “Critical Thinking Assessment of College Students.”

Journal of College Reading and Learning, 1997, 28, 12–23.

Atlee, T. The Tao of Democracy. Cranston, R.I.: The Writer’s Collective, 2003.

Bohm, D. On Dialogue (L. Nichol, ed.). New York: Routledge, 2003. (Originally published

1996.)

Conflict Research Consortium. Treating Communication Problems. Conflict Research Consortium,

1998a. [http:/_/_www.colorado.edu/_conflict/_peace/_!treating_overlays.htm.]

References 617

Conflict Research Consortium. Dialogue Projects. Conflict Research Consortium, 1998b.

[http:/_/_www.colorado.edu/_conflict/_peace/_treatment/_dialog2.htm].

Conversation Café. “Come to a Conversation Cafe.” 2002. [http://www.conversationcafe.

org/join_main.html].

Davis, S. “Build and Maintain a Process Vessel.” In S. Davis (ed.), Selected Articles from the

Master Facilitator Journal. Ridgecrest, Calif.:Master Facilitator Journal, 2003.

Edwards, A. “The Moderator as an Emerging Democratic Intermediary: The Role of the

Moderator in Internet Discussions about Public Issues.” Information Polity, 2002, 7.

[https:/_/_ep.eur.nl/_retrieve/_608/_BSK019.pdf].

Gerard, G., and Ellinor, L. “Dialogue Contrasted with Discussion.” 2004. [http://www.

thedialoguegrouponline.com/whatsdialogue.html#Contrast].

Heierbacher, S. “What Are Dialogue and Deliberation?” 2004. [http://www.thataway.org/

resources/understand/what.html#deliberation].

Heierbacher, S., and Fluke, A. “What Is Dialogue?” 2001. [http://www.thataway.org/dialogue/

org/org2.htm].

Hunter, D., Bailey, A., and Taylor B. The Art of Facilitation: How to Create Group Synergy.

Tucson, Ariz.: Fisher, 1995.

International Association of Facilitators. “Statement of Values and Code of Ethics for

Facilitators—Draft Adopted May 21, 2002.” 2002. [http://www.iaf-world.org/about/iaf/

iafethics.cfm].

Isaacs,W. “Strategies for Team Learning.” In P. Senge and others, The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook:

Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday,

1994.

Isaacs,W. Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together: A Pioneering Approach to Communicating

in Business and in Life. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Jaworski, J. Synchronicity: The Inner Path of Leadership. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1998.

Kirby, G., Goodpaster, J., and Levin, M. Critical Thinking. Boston: Pearson, 2003.

Madonik, B. I Hear What You Say, But What Are You Telling Me? The Strategic Use of Nonverbal

Communication in Mediation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Nierenberg, G., and Calero, H. How to Read a Person Like a Book. New York: Barnes and

Noble, 2003. (Originally published 1971.)

Palmer, P. The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher’s Life. San

Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

Public Conversations Project. “Distinguishing Debate from Dialogue: A Table.”

[http://www.publicconversations.org/pcp/uploadDocs/toolbox.pdf]. 1992.

Pyser, S., and Figallo, C. “The ‘Listening to the City’ Online Dialogues Experience: The

Impact of a Full Value Contract.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 2004, 21, 381–393.

Schoem,D., and others. “Intergroup Dialogue: Democracy at Work in Theory and Practice.”

In D. Schoem and S. Hurtado (eds.), Intergroup Dialogue: Deliberative Democracy in

School, College, Community and Workplace. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2001.

Schuman, S. “What to Look for in a Group Facilitator.” Quality Progress, 1996, 29(6), 69–72.

618 References

Scott, S. Fierce Conversations: Achieving Success at Work and in Life, One Conversation at a

Time. New York: Viking Penguin, 2002.

Senge, P., and others. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning

Organization. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

Society for Human Resource Management. “What Is the ‘Business Case’ for Diversity?”

2004. [http://www.shrm.org/diversity/businesscase.asp].

Study Circles Resource Center. “Organizing Community-Wide Dialogue for Action and

Change: A Step-by-Step Guide.” Pomfret, Conn.: Topsfield Foundation, 2001. [http://

www.studycircles.org/pdf/SCRCPG.pdf].

Swain, V. M. “The Sacred Container as a Way to Address the Cycle of Violence.” 2001.

[http://www.global-leader.org/gl_sacred_container.htm].

Whitney, D., Cooperrider, D., Trosten-Bloom, A., and Kaplin, B. Encyclopedia of Positive

Questions: Using Appreciative Inquiry to Bring Out the Best in Your Organization. Euclid,

Ohio: Lakeshore Communications, 2002.

Zuniga, X., and Nagda, B. “Design Considerations in Intergroup Dialogue.” In D. Schoem

and S. Hurtado (eds.), Intergroup Dialogue: Deliberative Democracy in School, College,

Community, and Workplace. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2004.

Chapter Fourteen

Appalachian Center for Economic Networks. Cooperative Economic Development Strategies

Replication Manual. Athens, Ohio: Appalachian Center for Economic Networks, 1998.

Axelrod, R., and Axelrod, E. The Conference Model.Wilmette, Ill.: Axelrod Group, 1993.

Cole, C. R., and others. “Heart-Rate Recovery After Exercise as a Predictor of Mortality.”

New England Journal of Medicine, 1999, 341, 1351–1357.

Dannemiller, K., and others. Consultant Guide to Large-Scale Meetings. Ann Arbor,Mich.:

Dannemiller Tyson, 1994.

Dixon, N. Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know.

Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.

Eisenhardt, K. M., and Sull, D. M. “Strategy as Simple Rules.” Harvard Business Review,

2001, 79(1), 106–116.

Owen, H. Open Space Technology: A User’s Guide. Potomac,Md.: Abbott Publishing, 1992.

Owen, H.“A Brief User’s Guide to Open Space Technology.” N.d. [http://www.openspaceworld.

com/users_guide.htm].

Stacey, R. D. Complex Responsive Processes in Organizations: Learning and Knowledge

Creation. London: Routledge, 2001.

Sweeney, L. B., and Meadows,D. The Systems Thinking Playbook. Durham, N.H.: University

of New Hampshire Institute for Policy and Social Science Research, 2001.

Weisbord, M. Discovering Common Ground. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1992.

World Café Community Foundation. The World Café. 2003. [http://www.theworldcafe.com].

Zimmerman, B., Plsek, P., and Lindberg, C. Edgeware: Insights from Complexity Science for

Health Care Leaders. Cranbury, N.J.: VHA, 1998.

References 619

Chapter Fifteen

Agazarian, Y. M. Systems-Centered Therapy for Groups. New York: Guilford Press, 1997.

Asch, S. Social Psychology. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1952.

Bertalanffy, L. General System Theory. New York: George Braziller, 1968.

Lawrence, P. R., and Lorsch, J.W. Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation

and Integration. Cambridge,Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., and White, T. “Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally-

Created ‘Social Climates.’” Journal of Social Psychology, 1939, 10, 271–299.

Marrow, A. J. The Practical Theorist: The Life and Work of Kurt Lewin. New York: Teachers

College, 1977. (Originally published in 1969.)

Trist, E. L., with Murray, H. The Social Engagement of Social Science: A Tavistock Anthology.

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1990.

Weir, J. “The Personal Growth Laboratory.” In K. D. Benne, L. P. Bradford, J. R. Gibb, and

R. O. Lippitt (eds.), The Laboratory Method of Changing and Learning: Theory and

Application. Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior, 1971.

Weisbord, M., and Janoff, S. Future Search: An Action Guide. (2nd ed.) San Francisco:

Berrett-Koehler, 2000.

Chapter Sixteen

Abdullah, A. “The Influence of Values on Management in Malaysia.”Unpublished doctoral

dissertation, Universiti Kebangsaan, Bangi,Malaysia, 2001.

Abdullah, A., and Shephard, P. The Cross Cultural Game. Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia: Brain

Dominance Technologies, 2000. [http://asma.braindominance.com/game.htm].

Adler, N. International Dimensions of Organisational Behaviour. (3rd ed.) Cincinnati, Ohio:

International Thomson, 1997.

Ballard, B., and Clanchy, J. Studying in Australia.Melbourne, Australia: Longman Cheshire,

1991.

Beasley, C., and Hogan, C. F. Cultural Dimensions of Australian and Overseas Students. Perth,

Western Australia: Edith Cowan University Staff Development Workshop, 2003.

Blainey, J., Davis, K., and Goodwill, B. Valuing Diversity: Facilitating Cross Cultural Communication

and Conflict Resolution. French’s Forest, New South Wales, Australia:Working

Together, 1995.

Bohm, D., Factor, D., and Garrett, P. 1995, Dialogue: A Proposal. Nov. 10, 2003. [http://

world.std.com/~lo/bohm/0001.html].

Brenson-Lazán, G. “The Evolution of Conflict and the Facilitation of Its Resolution.” Paper

presented at the Second Chinese Facilitators’ Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, Nov. 2003.

Brislin, R.W. Understanding Culture’s Influence on Behavior. (2nd ed.) Fort Worth, Tex.:

Harcourt, 2000.

Burson, M.“Finding Clarity in the Midst of Conflict: Facilitating Dialogue and Skillful Discussion

Using a Model from the Quaker Tradition.”Group Facilitation: A Research and

Applications Journal, 2002, 4, 23–29.

620 References

Chakraborty, S. K. Values and Ethics for Organisations. New York: Oxford University Press,

1998.

Chang, S. “Cultural Dimensions Workshop Handout.”Melbourne, Australia: University of

Melbourne, 2002.

de Bono, E. Six Thinking Hats. London, England: Penguin, 1985.

de Bono, E. The CoRT Thinking Process. London: Pergamon Press, 1987.

Distefano, J. J., and Maznevski, M. L. “Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global

Management.” Organizational Dynamics, 2000, 29(1), 45–63.

Gardenswartz, L., Rowe, A., Digh, P., and Bennett, M. The Global Diversity Desk Reference:

Managing an International Workforce. San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2003.

Geschka, H., Schaude, G. R., and Schlicksupp, H. “Modern Techniques for Solving

Problems.” Chemical Engineering, 1973, 6(80), 91–97.

Hall, E. T. Understanding Cultural Differences, Yarmouth,Me.: Intercultural Press, 1990.

Hofstede, G. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in World-Related Values.

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1980.

Hofstede,G. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York:McGraw-Hill, 1991.

Hogan, C. F. “Cross-Cultural Communication Workshop.” Training and Management

Development Methods, 1996, 10(2) 8.01–8.16.

Hogan, C. F. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles. London: Kogan Page, 2002.

Hogan, C. F. Practical Facilitation: A Toolkit of Techniques. London: Kogan Page, 2003a.

Hogan, C. F. “Using Music to Promote Harmony, Learning and Fun with Groups.” Paper

presented at the Sixth Annual International Association of Facilitators’ Regional Conference,

Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia, Sept. 2003b.

Honey, P., and Mumford, A. Using Your Learning Styles.Maidenhead, England: Peter Honey,

1986.

Honey, P., and Mumford, A. The Manual of Learning Styles. (3rd ed.) Maidenhead, England:

Peter Honey, 1992.

Reese, R. “A Proactive-Interactive Approach to Bridging Cultural Differences.” Nov. 2001.

[http://www.csupomona.edu/~rreese/MULTICULTURAL.html].

Samovar, L. A., and Porter, R. E. Communication Between Cultures. (5th ed.) Belmont, Calif.:

Thomson Wadsworth, 2004.

Satir,V. Conjoint Family Therapy. Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 1983.

Schnelle, E. The Metaplan-Method—Communication Tools for Planning and Learning

Groups. Quickborn,West Germany:Metaplan, 1979.

Teaching and Learning Committee. “Teaching with Diversity Checklist.” Perth,Western

Australia: University ofWestern Australia, Nov. 2003. [http://www.acs.uwa.edu.au/csdtl/

99TDChecklist.htm].

Trompenaars, F. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business.

London: Economist Books, 1993.

Trompenaars, F., and Hampden-Turner, C. Building Cross-Cultural Competence. New York:

Wiley, 2000.

References 621

Tuckman, B.W., and Jensen, M. A. “Stages of Small Group Development Revisited.” Group

and Organisational Studies, 1977, 2, 419–427.

Verghese, T. “Facilitating Successfully with Culturally Diverse Groups.” Paper presented at

the Sixth Regional Facilitators’ Conference, Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia, Sept. 2003.

Chapter Seventeen

Gesell, I. Playing Along: Group Learning Activities Borrowed from Improvisation Theater.

Duluth,Minn.:Whole Person Associates, 1997.

Johnstone, K. Impro: Improvisation and the Theater. New York: Theater Arts, 1989.

Spolin,V. Improvisation for the Theater. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 1963.

Waldrop,M.M. “Dee Hock on Management.” Fast Company, Oct.–Nov. 1996, p. 79.

Chapter Eighteen

Anderson, J., Ashraf, N., Douther, C., and Jack, M.“Presence and Usability in Shared Space

Virtual Conferencing: A Participatory Design Study.” CyberPsychology and Behavior,

2001, 4(2), 287–305.

Attaran, M., and Attaran, S. “Collaborative Computing Technology: The Hot New Managing

Tool.” Team Performance Management, 2002, 8(1/2), 13–20.

Bal, J., and Teo, P. “Implementing Virtual Teamworking: Part 3-A Methodology for Introducing

Virtual Teamworking.” Logistics Information Management, 2001, 14, 276–292.

Bradley, L.,Wagner-Johnson, D., and Ballantine, R. Effective Virtual Meetings. Denton, Tex.:

Center for Collaborative Organizations, University of North Texas, 2002.

Connell, J. B. “Organizational Consulting to Virtual Teams.” In R. Lowman (ed.), Handbook

of Organizational Consulting Psychology: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory, Skills,

Techniques. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

Creighton, J. L., and Adams, J.W. Cyber Meeting: How to Link People and Technology in Your

Organization. New York: AMACOM, 1998.

Duarte, D., and Snyder, N.Mastering Virtual Teams: Strategies, Tools, and Techniques That

Succeed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Fels, D., and Weiss, P. “Toward Determining an Attention-Getting Device for Improving

Interaction During Video-Mediated Communication.” Computers in Human Behavior,

2000, 16, 189–198.

LeMay, E. A. Virtual Teams: Work Processes, Communication, and Team Development.

Dissertation Abstracts International, 2000, 61(09), 322A, 2000. (UMI No. 9981350).

Straus, D. How to Make Collaboration Work. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2002.

Whittaker, S. “Rethinking Video as a Technology for Interpersonal Communications:

Theory and Design Implications.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,

1995, 42, 501–529.

622 References

Chapter Nineteen

Bens, I. Facilitation at a Glance. Salem, N.H.: GOAL/QPC, 1999.

Brassard, M., and Ritter, D. The Memory Jogger II. Salem, N.H.: GOAL/QPC, 1994.

Fisher, R., Ury,W. L., and Patton B. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving

In. (2nd ed.) New York: Penguin Books, 1991.

Katzenbach, J. R., and Smith, D. K. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High Performance

Organization. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993.

Marianccio, D. All I Really Need to Know I Learned from Watching Star Trek. New York:

Crown, 1994.

Napolitano, C. S. “Some Thoughts About the Vision Thing.” Notes from presentation at

the University of Maryland, University College, Leadership Institute College Park,Md.,

Aug. 1992.

Smith, G. “Group Development: A Review of the Literature and Commentary on Future

Research Directions.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal, 2001, 3, 14–44.

Tuckman, B.W.“Developmental Sequence in Small Groups.”Group Facilitation: A Research

and Applications Journal, 2001, 3, 66–81.

Chapter Twenty

Beckhard, R., and Harris, R. T. Organization Transitions: Managing Complex Change. (2nd

ed.) Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1987.

Bunker, B. B., and Alban, B. T. Large Group Interventions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.

Cady, S. H., and Dannemiller, K. D. “Whole System Transformation: The Five Truths of

Change.” In W. Rothwell, R. Sullivan, and G.McLean (eds.), Practicing OD. San Francisco:

Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, 2004.

Capra, F. The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York:

Doubleday, 1996.

Dannemiller Tyson Associates. Whole-Scale Change: Unleashing the Magic in Organizations.

Berrett-Koehler, 2000.

Dannemiller Tyson Associates. Whole-Scale Change Toolkit. Ann Arbor,Mich.: Dannemiller

Tyson Associates, 2004.

Gerard, G., and Ellinor, L. Dialogue at Work: Skills for Leveraging Collective Understanding.

Waltham,Mass.: Pegasus Communications, 2001.

Chapter Twenty-One

Bazerman, M. H. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. (5th ed.). New York:Wiley,

2002.

Beach, L. R. The Psychology of Decision Making: People in Organizations. Thousand Oaks,

Calif.: Sage, 1997.

References 623

Blanchard, K. H. SLII: A Situational Approach to Managing People. Escondo, Calif.: Blanchard

Training and Development, 1985.

Folger, J. P., Poole, M. S., and Stutman, R. K.Working Through Conflict: Strategies for Relationships,

Groups, and Organizations. (4th ed.). Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 2001.

Frey, L. R. (ed.). Innovations in Group Facilitation: Applications in Natural Settings. Cresskill,

N.J.: Hampton Press, 1995.

Gouran, D. S.Making Decisions in Groups: Choices and Consequences. Glenview, Ill.: Scott,

Foresman, 1982.

Gouran, D. S. “Communication Skills for Group Decision Making.” In J. O. Greene and

B. R. Burleson (eds.), Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills.

Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 2003a.

Gouran, D. S. “Leadership as the Art of Counteractive Influence.” In R. Y. Hirokawa, R. S.

Cathcart, L. A. Samovar, and L. D.Henman (eds.), Small Group Communication Theory

and Practice: An Anthology. (8th ed.) Los Angeles: Roxbury, 2003b.

Gouran, D. S., and Hirokawa, R. Y. (1983). “The Role of Communication in Groups: A

Functional Perspective.” In M. S.Mander (ed.), Communications in Transition: Issues

and Debates in Current Research. New York: Praeger, 1983.

Gouran, D. S., and Hirokawa, R. Y. “Functional Theory and Communication in Decision-

Making and Problem-Solving Groups: An Expanded View.” In R. Y. Hirokawa and M.

S. Poole (eds.), Communication and Group Decision Making. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks,

Calif.: Sage, 1996.

Gouran, D. S., and Hirokawa, R. Y. “Effective Decision Making and Problem Solving in

Groups.” In R.Y.Hirokawa, R. S. Cathcart, L. A. Samovar, and L.D.Henman (eds.), Small

Group Communication Theory and Practice: An Anthology. Los Angeles: Roxbury, 2003.

Hall, J., and Watson,W. H. “The Effects of a Normative Intervention on Group Decision-

Making Performance.”Human Relations, 1970, 23, 299–317.

Herek, G., Janis, I. L., and Huth, P.“Decision Making During International Crises: Is Quality

of Process Related to Outcome?” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1987, 31, 203–226.

Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K. H.Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human

Resources. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993.

House, R. J. “A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness.” Administrative Science Quarterly,

1971, 16, 321–328.

House, R. J.“Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.”

Leadership Quarterly, 1996, 7, 323–352.

House, R. J., and Dessler, G. “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Some Post Hoc and A

Priori Tests.” In J. G. Hunt and L. L. Larson (eds.), Contingency Approaches to Leadership.

Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1974.

Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., and Kelley, H. H. Communication and Persuasion: Psychological

Studies of Opinion Change. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1953.

Janis, I. L. Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign-Policy Decisions and

Fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.

624 References

Janis, I. L. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. (2nd ed.).

Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.

Janis, I. L. Crucial Decisions: Leadership in Policymaking and Crisis Management. New York:

Free Press, 1989.

Janis, I. L., and Mann, L. Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and

Commitment. New York: Free Press, 1977.

Meyers, R. A. “Social Influence and Group Argumentation.” In L. R. Frey and J. K. Barge

(eds.), Managing Group Life: Communicating in Decision-Making Groups. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Nisbett, R., and Ross, L. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment.

Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1980.

Schwarz, R. The Skilled Facilitator: A Comprehensive Resource for Consultants, Facilitators,

Managers, Trainers, and Coaches. (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

Schweiger, D. M., Sandberg,W. R., and Rechner, P. L. “Experiential Effects of Dialectical

Inquiry, Devil’s Advocacy, and Consensus Approaches to Strategic Decision Making.”

Academy of Management Journal, 1989, 32, 745–772.

Volkema, R. J. “Problem Formulation in Planning and Design.”Management Science, 1983,

29, 639–652.

Chapter Twenty-Two

Deutsch, M., and Coleman, P. The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

Fisher, R., Ury,W., and Patton B. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In.

(2nd ed.) New York: Penguin Books, 1991.

Leadership Strategies Institute. The Effective Facilitator. Atlanta, Ga.: Leadership Strategies

Institute, 2003.

Marcum, D., Smith, S., and Khalsa, M. Businessthink: Rules for Getting It Right—Now and

No Matter What. New York:Wiley, 2002.

Russo, J. E., and Schoemaker, P.J.H.Winning Decisions: Getting It Right the First Time. New

York: Doubleday, 2002.

Welch, D. A. Decisions, Decisions: The Art of Effective Decision Making. Amherst, N.Y.:

Prometheus Books, 2002.

Wilkinson, M. The Secrets of Facilitation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

Chapter Twenty-Three

Alexander, C. The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., and Silverstein, M. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings,

Construction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Buzan, T. The Mind Map Book: How to Use Radiant Thinking to Maximize Your Brain’s

Untapped Potential. New York: Plume, 1996.

References 625

De Saint-Exupéry, A. The Little Prince. London:Mammoth, 1991.

“The High Cost of Disengaged Employees.” Gallup Management Journal, Apr. 15, 2002,

pp. 1–2.

Horn, R. E. Visual Language: Global Communication for the Twenty-First Century. Bainbridge

Island,Wash.:MacroVU, 1998.

Margulies, N., and Maal, N.Mapping Inner Space: Learning and Teaching Visual Mapping.

Tucson, Ariz.: Zephyr, 2002.

Peña,W., Parschall, S., and Kelly, K. Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer.

Houston: CRSS, 1987.

Saint-Exupéry, A. The Little Prince. (K.Woods, trans.). London:Mammoth, 1991.

Schank, R. C., and Abelson, R. Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Mahwah, N.J.:

Erlbaum, 1977.

Schank, R. C., and Abelson, R. Knowledge and Memory: The Real Story. Mahwah, N.J.:

Erlbaum, 1995.

Chapter Twenty-Four

Beach, L. R. Image Theory: Decision Making in Personal and Organization Context. New

York:Wiley, 1990.

Bergdall, T. D. Baragay Monitoring and Evaluation: Consultant’s Report on the Governance

and Local Democracy Project. Manila: ARD, 1997.

Bergdall, T. D., and Powell, C. F. Beyond Participation: The Final Report of the Community

Empowerment Program in South Wollo, Ethiopia. Addis Abba: Sida, 1996.

Boulding, K. The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan

Press, 1956.

Cooperrider, D. “Positive Image, Positive Action: The Affirmative Basis of Organizing.” In

S. Srivastva and D. Cooperrider (eds.), Appreciative Management and Leadership: The

Power of Positive Thought and Action in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

Cousins, J. B., and Whitmore, E. “Framing Participatory Evaluation.” In E.Whitmore (ed.),

Understanding and Practicing Participatory Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation,

no. 80. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

Davies, R. “An Evolutionary Approach to Facilitating Organisational Learning: An Experiment

by the Christian Commission for Development in Bangladesh.” In D. Mosse,

J. Farrington, and A. Rew (eds.), Development as a Process: Concepts and Methods for

Working with Complexity. London: Routledge/ODI, 1998.

Donnelly, J. (ed.). Who Are the Question-Makers: A Participatory Evaluation Handbook. New

York: Office of Evaluation and Strategic Planning, UNDP, 1997.

Estrella, M. (ed.). Learning from Change: Issues and Experiences in Participatory Monitoring

and Evaluation. London: Intermediate Technology, 2000.

Estrella, M., and Gaventa, J. Who Counts Reality? Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation:

A Literature Review. Sussex: IDS, 1998.

626 References

Fetterman, D. M., Kaftarian, S. J., and Wandersman, A. (eds.). Empowerment Evaluation:

Knowledge and Tools for Self-Assessment and Accountability. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage,

1996.

Giddens, A. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987.

Giddens, A. “Structuration Theory and Sociological Analysis.” In J. Clark, C.Modgil, and

S.Modgil (eds.), Anthony Giddens: Consensus and Controversy. Bristol: Falmer Press,

1990.

Herman, J. L.,Morris, L. L., and Fitz-Gibbon, C. T. Evaluator’s Handbook. Thousand Oaks,

Calif.: Sage, 1987.

Kellogg Foundation. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook. Battle Creek, Mich.:

Kellogg Foundation, 1998.

Kretzmann, J., and McKnight, J. Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward

Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Assets. Chicago: ACTA Publications, 1993.

Lazarus, A. In the Mind’s Eye: The Power of Imagery. New York: Raison, 1977.

Long, N., and Long, A. (eds.). Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice

in Social Research and Development. London: Routledge, 1992.

Opto International AB. Twenty-One Steps for Preparing a Project: A Manual to Guide the

Journey. Topola: Opto, 2002.

Opto International AB. Second Bi-Annual Report to Sida for the Topola Rural Development

Programme, June-December 2003. Stockholm: Opto, 2003.

Patton, M. Q. Creative Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1987.

Patton, M. Q. Utilization Evaluation: The New Century Edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:

Sage, 1997.

Polak, F. The Image of the Future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1973.

Robinson, L. “Participatory Rural Appraisal: A Brief Introduction.” Group Facilitation: A

Research and Applications Journal, 2002. no. 4. [http://iaf-world.org/Docs/CommPub/

issue4.cfm].

Rossi, P. H., Freeman, H. E., and Lipsey, M.W. Evaluation: A Systematic Approach. (7th ed.)

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003.

Tye,M. The Imagery Debate. Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.

Wholey, J. S.,Hatry, H. P., and Newcomer, K. E. (eds.). Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.

Chapter Twenty-Five

Bennis,W. G., and Biderman, P.W. Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration.

Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1997.

Friedlob, G. T., Schleifer, L. F., and Plewa, F. J. Essentials of Corporate Performance Measurement.

New York:Wiley, 2002.

Hackman, J. R. Groups That Work (and Those That Don’t): Creating Conditions for Effective

Teamwork. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

References 627

Hare, A. P. Handbook of Small Group Research. New York: Free Press, 1976.

McCartt, A. T., and Rohrbaugh, J.“Managerial Openness to Change and the Introduction

of GDSS: Explaining Initial Success and Failure in Decision Conferencing.” Organization

Science, 1995, 6, 569–584.

McGrath, J. E. Groups: Interaction and Performance. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall,

1984.

Meyer, M.W. Rethinking Performance Measurement. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press, 2002.

Meyer, N. D., and Boone, M. E. The Information Edge. New York: Holt, Rinehart and

Winston, 1987.

Milter, R. J., and Rohrbaugh, J.“Microcomputers and Strategic Decision Making.” Public

Productivity Review, 1985, 9, 175–189.

Neely, A. Business Performance Measurement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Parsons, T. “General Theory in Sociology.” In R.Merton, L. Broom, and L. S. Cottrell, Jr.

(eds.), Sociology Today: Problems and Prospects. New York: Basic Books, 1959.

Poister, T.H. Measuring Performance in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco:

Jossey-Bass, 2003.

Quinn, R. E., and Rohrbaugh, J. “A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Towards a Competing

Values Approach to Organizational Analysis.”Management Science, 1983, 29,

363–377.

Rangarajan, N., and Rohrbaugh, J.“Multiple Roles of Online Facilitation: An Example in

Any-Time,Any-Place Meetings.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal,

2003, 5, 26–36.

Reagan, P., and Rohrbaugh, J. “Group Decision Process Effectiveness: A Competing Values

Approach.” Group and Organization Studies, 1990, 21, 20–43.

Rohrbaugh, J. “The Competing Values Approach: Innovation and Effectiveness in the Job

Service.” In R. H. Hall and R. E. Quinn (eds.), Organizational Theory and Public Policy.

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1983.

Rohrbaugh, J. “Comments for Panel 6: The Productivity Frontier.” Public Productivity

Review, 1985, 9, 384–388.

Rohrbaugh, J. “Assessing the Effectiveness of Expert Teams.” In J.Mumpower, L. Phillips,

O. Renn, and V.R.R. Uppuluri (eds.), Expert Judgment and Expert Systems. Berlin:

Springer-Verlag, 1987.

Rohrbaugh, J. “Demonstration Experiments: Assessing the Process, Not the Outcome, of

Group Decision Support.” In I. Benbasat (ed.), Experimental Methods in Information

Systems. Cambridge,Mass.: Harvard Business School, 1989.

Rohrbaugh, J. “Cognitive Challenges and Collective Accomplishments.” In R. P. Bostrom,

R. T.Watson, and S. T. Kinney (eds.), Computer Augmented Teamwork: A Guided Tour.

New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.

628 References

Rohrbaugh, J. “The Use of System Dynamics in Decision Conferencing: Implementing Welfare

Reform in New York State.” In G. D. Garson (ed.), Handbook of Public Information

Systems. New York:Marcel Dekker, 2000.

Senge, P. M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New

York: Doubleday, 1990.

Wright, B. E., and Rohrbaugh, J. “Evaluating the Strengths and Weaknesses of Group Decision-

Making Processes: A Competing Values Approach.”Group Facilitation: A Research

and Applications Journal, 1999, 1, 5–13.

Chapter Twenty-Six

American Society for Training and Development.Models for Excellence: The Conclusions

and Recommendations of the ASTD Training and Development Competency Study.

Baltimore,Md.: ASTD Press, 1983.

Kirk, J., Schwarz, R. M., Tahar, M., and Wilkinson, M. “Comments on Facilitator Competencies.”

Group Facilitation: A Research and Application Journal, 2000, 2(2), 32–37.

Knowles, M. S. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy.

(Rev. ed.) Chicago: Association Press, 1980.

National Organization of Competency Assurance. Certification: A NOCalif. Handbook,

Updated.Washington, D.C.: National Organization of Competency Assurance, 1996.

Pierce,V. Cheesbrow, D., and Brau, L. M.“Facilitator Competencies.”Group Facilitation: A

Research and Application Journal, 2000, 2(2), 24–31.

Rao, P.U.B. “Competency Profiling.” Dec. 4, 2003. [http://www.indiainfoline.com/bisc/

imtfac08.html].

Stanfield, R. B. “The Magic of the Facilitator.” Edges: New Planetary Patterns, Sept. 1994.

[http://www.iaf-world.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3439].

Chapter Twenty-Seven

Arthur,W. B., and others, “Illuminating the Blind Spot: Leadership in the Context of

Emerging Worlds (Summary Paper on an Ongoing Research Project).” 2000. [http://

www.dialogonleadership.org/WhitePaper.html#two].

Bohm, D., Factor, D., and Garrett, P. “Dialogue—A Proposal.” 1991. [http://www.muc.de/

~heuvel/dialogue/dialogue_proposal.html].

Brown, J. S., Denning, S., Groh, K., and Prusak, L. “Storytelling: Passport to the Twenty-

First Century.” 2001. [http://www.creatingthe21stcentury.com/JSB.html]

Bunker, B. B., and Alban, B. T. Large Group Interventions: Engaging the Whole System for

Rapid Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.

Collins, J. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap . . . and Others Don’t. New

York: Random House, 2001.

References 629

“Convoy Course: Lecture One.” Golden Pathways. Chicago: Institute of Cultural Affairs,

1996. CD-ROM.

Cunningham,W. “Abilene Paradox.” Jan. 2004. [http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?AbileneParadox].

Denning, S. The Springboard: How Storytelling Ignites Action in Knowledge-Era Organizations.

Boston: Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.

Factor, D., “On Facilitation and Purpose.” 1994. [http://www.muc.de/~heuvel/dialogue/

facilitation_purpose.html].

GOPP Moderators Association.“What Is GOPP?” [http://www.gopp.org/gma/gmagopp.htm].

2000.

“Grove Consultants International.” 2003. [http://www.grove.com/index.html].

Harvey, J. B. The Abilene Paradox and Other Meditations on Management. San Francisco:

Jossey-Bass, 1996.

Holman, P., and Devane, T. (eds.). The Change Handbook: Group Methods for Shaping the

Future. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1999.

Horn, R. E. Visual Language: Global Communications for the Twenty-First Century. Bainbridge

Island,Wash.:MacroVU, 1998.

Hoskins, S. (ed.). After Action Review Facilitation Guide. Rijswijk, The Netherlands: Shell

International Exploration and Production, 2002.

International Association of Facilitators. “Statement of Values and Code of Ethics for

Facilitators.” 2004. [http://www.iaf-world.org/about/iaf/iafethics.cfm].

I Six Sigma, “Determine the Root Cause: 5 Whys.” 2000. [http://www.isixsigma.com/

library/content/c020610a.asp].

Jaworski, J., and Scharmer, C.O., “Leadership in the Digital Economy: Sensing and Actualizing

Emerging Futures.” 2000. [http://www.dialogonleadership.org/LeadingDigital

Econoomy.html].

Jenkins, J. C., and Jenkins M. R. The Social Process Triangles. Groningen, The Netherlands:

Imaginal Training, 1997.

Jenkins, J. C., and Jenkins M. R., “The Personal Disciplines of a Facilitator.” Paper presented

at the International Association of Facilitators’ Conference 2000, Toronto, Canada,May

2000.

Jenkins, M. R.,“Making an Evaluation Without Making a Big Fuss.” 2002. [http://www.

imaginal.nl/articleEvaluation.htm].

King, M. L., Jr. Strength to Love. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981.

Kuchenmüller, R., and Stifel, M., “Simultaneous Process Pictures.” N.d. [http://www.

visuelle-protokolle.de/eng/index2.html].

“LENS Contextual Charts.” Golden Pathways. Chicago: Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1996.

CD-ROM.

“The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Upgrading Urban Communities: A Resource

for Practitioners, Interactive Community Planning: ZOPP: Goal Oriented Project

Planning.” 2001. [http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/issues-tools/tools/

ZOPP.html].

630 References

Mao Ze Dong. On Contradiction.Mao Ze Dong Internet Archive. 1999. [http://www.marxists.

org/reference/archive/mao/works/1937/08.htm]. (Originally published 1937.)

Mathews, J.W. “Consult Contextual Spin Kawangware (Nairobi, Kenya) Human Development

Project.” Golden Pathways, Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1996.

Morgan, G. Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1986.

Morgan, G. Imaginization: The Art of Creative Management. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage,

1993.

Musashi,Miyamoto, A Book of Five Rings. (V. Harris, trans.).Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook,

1982.

“NINS.” Golden Pathways. Chicago: Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1996. CD-ROM.

Owen,H. Open Space Technology: A User’s Guide. (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler,

1997.

“PSU Manual.” Golden Pathways. Chicago: Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1996. CD-ROM.

Ransdell, E. “The Nike Story: Just Tell it!” Fast Company, 2000, 31, 24.

Rottmann, D. “Joint Applications Development (JAD).”Nov. 2001. [http://www.umsl.edu/

~sauter/analysis/488_f01_papers/rottman.htm], Nov. 2001].

Rough, J. “Dynamic Facilitation.”May 23, 2003. [http://www.tobe.net/topics/facilitation.

html].

Rounds, J. “Group Think.” Nov. 13, 2002. [http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Speech/rccs/

theory16.htm].

Scharmer, C. O. “Presencing: Shifting the Place from Which Leaders Operate: On the Tacit

Dimension of Leading Revolutionary Change.” Paper presented at the Conference on

Knowledge and Innovation, Helsinki, Finland,May 2000.

Schein, E. Process Consultation Revisited: Building the Helping Relationship. Reading,Mass.:

Addison-Wesley, 1999.

Senge, P. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York:

Doubleday, 1990.

Senge, P., and others The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies for Building a Learning

Organization. London: Nicholas Brealey, 1994.

Senge, P., and others. The Dance of Change: The Challenges of Sustaining Momentum in

Learning Organizations. London: Nicholas Brealey, 1999.

Signet Consulting Group. “From Post-Mortem to Living Practice: An In-Depth Study of

the Evolution of the After Action Review.” 2000. [http://www.signetconsulting.com/

aarsum.html].

Spencer, L. J.Winning Through Participation. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1989.

Stanfield, R. B. The Workshop Book, From Individual Creativity to Group Action. Philadelphia:

New Society, 2002.

Stewart, A. “Appreciative Inquiry: A Description.” 1995. [http://www.pancultural.com/

aibasicdescrip.html].

Vennix, J. Group Model Building: Facilitating Team Learning Using System Dynamics. New

York:Wiley, 1996.

References 631

Watkins, J. M., and Mohr, B. J. Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Weaver, R. G., and Farrell, J.D.Managers as Facilitators. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1997.

Werkgroep Docenten Onderwijszaken, Collegiale consultatie en intervisie: het stellen van

vragen als middel tot probleemverheldering (Collegial consultation and peer consultation

teams: The posing of questions as a means for clarifying problems). Utrecht, NLD:

HvU Press, 2000.

Chapter Twenty-Eight

Garvin, D. Learning in Action: A Guide to Putting the Learning Organization to Work.

Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.

Hill, N. Think and Grow Rich. New York: Fawcett, 1960. (Originally published 1937.)

Keltner, J. “Facilitation: Catalyst for Problem Solving.”Management Communication Quarterly,

1989, 3(1), 8–32.

Maier, N.R.F. “Assets and Liabilities in Group Problem Solving: The Need for an Integrative

Function.” Psychological Review, 1967, 74(4), 239–249.

Parisse, A., and others. The Expertise Imperative: An NSA White Paper on the Future of the

Speaking Profession. Tempe, Ariz.: National Speakers Association, 2003.

Sjodin, T., and Wickman, F.Mentoring: The Most Obvious Yet Overlooked Key to Achieving

More in Life Than You Ever Dreamed Possible. New York:McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Chapter Twenty-Nine

Argyris, C., and Schön, D. A. Organizational Learning II: Theory,Method and Practice. Reading,

Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1996.

Bendaly, L. The Facilitation Skills Training Kit. New York:McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Bentley, T. “Facilitation: “Providing Opportunities for Learning.” Journal of European

Industrial Training, 1994, 18(5), 8–22.

Box, G.E.P. “Robustness in the Strategy of Scientific Model Building.” In G. N.Wilkinson

(ed.), Robustness in Statistics. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press, 1979.

Brockbank, A., and McGill, I. Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education. Bristol,

Pa.: SHRE and Open University Press, 1998.

Broussine, M., and others. “The Best and Worst Time for Management Development.”

Journal of Management Development, 1998, 17(1), 56–67.

Burbules, N. C., and Berk, R. “Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogies: Relations,

Differences, and Limits.” In L. Fendler (ed.), Changing Terrains of Knowledge and Politics.

New York: Routledge, 1999.

Carr,W., and Kemmis, S. Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge, and Action Research.

Bristol, Pa.: Falmer Press, 1986.

Cervero, R. M., and Wilson, A. L. Power in Practice: Adult Education and the Struggle for

Knowledge and Power in Society. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

632 References

Chi, M.T.H., Farr, M. J., and Glaser, R. The Nature of Expertise.Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1988.

Denzin, N. K., and Lincoln, Y. S. “The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research.” In

Y. S. Lincoln (ed.), The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. (2nd ed.)

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003a.

Denzin, N. K., and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.). Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials.

(2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003b.

Denzin, N. K., and Lincoln,Y. S. (eds.). Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. (2nd ed.) Thousand

Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003c.

Ellinger, A. D., and Bostrom, R. P. “An Examination of Managers’ Beliefs About Their Roles

as Facilitators of Learning.”Management Learning, 2002, 33(2), 147–179.

Elliot, J. Action Research for Educational Change. Bristol, Pa.: Open University Press, 1991.

Erlandson, D. A., Harris, E. L., Skipper, B. L., and Allen, S. D. Doing Naturalistic Enquiry:

A Guide to Methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1993.

Ezzy, D. Qualitative Analysis: Practice and Innovation. New York: Allen and Unwin, 2002.

Flor, R., and Dooley, K. “The Dynamics of Learning to Automaticity.”Noetic Journal, 1998,

1(2), 168–173.

Freire, P. Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Seabury Press, 1973.

Gergen, M. M., and Gergen, K. J. “Qualitative Inquiry: Tensions and Transformations.” In

Y. S. Lincoln (ed.), The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. (2nd ed.)

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003.

Habermas, J. The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1: Reason and Rationalisation of

Society. (T.McCarthy, trans.). Boston: Beacon Press, 1984.

Habermas, J. Communication and the Evolution of Society. (T.McCarthy, trans.). Cambridge:

Polity Press, 1991.

Hackett, D., and Martin, C. L. Facilitation Skills for Team Leaders.Menlo Park, Calif.: Crisp,

1993.

Hart, L. B. Faultless Facilitation: An Instructor’s Manual for Facilitation Training. Amherst,

Mass.: Human Resource Development Press, 1991.

Hart, L. B. Faultless Facilitation: A Resource Guide for Group and Team Leaders. Amherst,

Mass.: Human Resource Development Press, 1992.

Havergal, M., and Edmonstone, J. The Facilitator’s Toolkit. Aldershot, England: Gower, 1999.

Heron, J. The Facilitators’ Handbook. London: Kogan Page, 1989.

Heron, J. Group Facilitation: Theories and Models for Practice. London: Kogan Page, 1993.

Heron, J. The Complete Facilitator’s Handbook. London: Kogan Page, 1999.

Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K. H.Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human

Resources. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993.

Hogan, C. F. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles. London: Kogan Page, 2002.

Hogan, C. F. Practical Facilitation: A Toolkit of Techniques. London: Kogan Page, 2003.

Hovenlynck, J. “Facilitating Experiential Learning as a Process of Metaphor Development.”

Journal of Experiential Education, 1998, 21(1), 6–13.

References 633

Hughes, C. “Facilitation in Context: Challenging Some Basic Principles.” Studies in

Continuing Education, 1999, 21(1), 21–43.

Hunter, D., Bailey, A., and Taylor, B. The Art of Facilitation. Auckland, New Zealand:

Tandem, 1995.

Hunter, D., Bailey, A., and Taylor, B. The Essence of Facilitation: Being in Action in Groups.

Auckland, New Zealand: Tandem, 1999.

James, P. “The Double Edge of Competency Training: Contradictory Discourses and Lived

Experience.” Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 2001, 53(2), 301–324.

Justice, T., and Jamieson, D.W. The Facilitator’s Fieldbook. New York: AMACON, 1999.

Kincheloe, J. L., and McLaren, P.“Rethinking Critical Theory and Qualitative Research. In

Y. S. Lincoln (ed.), The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. (2nd ed.)

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003.

Kirk, P., and Broussine, M. “The Politics of Facilitation.” Journal of Workplace Learning:

Employee Counselling Today, 2000, 12(1), 13–22.

Larsen, K.R.T., and others. “Learning Organizations: A Primer for Group Facilitators.”

Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal, 2002, 4(1), 30–44.

Lincoln, Y. S., and Guba, E. G. “Paradigmatic Controversies, Contradictions, and Emerging

Confluences.” In Y. S. Lincoln (ed.), The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories

and Issues. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003.

Marsick, V. J., and Watkins, K. E. Facilitating Learning Organisations: Making Learning

Count. Aldershot: Gower, 1999.

Mongeau, P. A., and Morr, M. C. “Reconsidering Brainstorming.” Group Facilitation: A

Research and Applications Journal, 1999, 1(1), 14–21.

Niederman, F., and Volkema, R. “The Effects of Facilitator Characteristics on Meeting

Preparation, Set Up and Implementation.” Small Group Research, 1999, 30(3), 330–360.

Parry, L. “Effective Facilitators—A Key Element in Successful Continuous Improvement

Processes.” Training for Quality, 1995, 3(4), 9–14.

Phnuyal, B., Archer, D., and Cottingham, S. “Participation, Literacy and Empowerment:

Reflections on Reflect.” Education Action, 1997, 8, 27–35.

Pierce,V., Cheesebrow, D., and Braun, L. M.“Facilitator Competencies.”Group Facilitation:

A Research and Applications Journal, 2000, 2(2), 24–31.

Priest, S., Gass, M., and Gillis, L. The Essential Elements of Facilitation. Dubuque, Iowa:

Kendall/Hunt, 2000.

Rasmussen, D. M.“Critical Theory and Philosophy.” In D. M. Rasmussen (ed.), The Handbook

of Critical Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.

Ringer, M.“Two Vital Aspects in the Facilitation of Groups: Connections and Containment.”

Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 1999, 4(1), 5–11.

Ringer,M. Group Action: The Dynamics of Groups in Therapeutic, Educational and Corporate

Settings. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2002.

Rogers, C. R. Freedom to Learn for the 80s. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E.Merrill, 1983.

634 References

Rogers, C. R. “The Interpersonal Relationship in the Facilitation of Learning.” In H. E.

Kirschenbaum (ed.), The Carl Rogers Reader. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.

Schön, D. A. Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988.

Schön, D. A. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Aldershot,

England: Arena, 1995.

Schwarz, R. “Comments of Facilitator Competencies.” Group Facilitation: A Research and

Applications Journal, 2000, 2(2), 33–34.

Schwarz, R. The Skilled Facilitator: A Comprehensive Resource for Consultants, Facilitators,

Managers, Trainers, and Coaches. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

Senge, P. M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New

York: Doubleday, 1990.

Senge, P. M.“Leading Learning Organisations: The Bold, the Powerful, and the Invisible.”

In R. Beckhard (ed.), The Leader of the Future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

Sharp, P. A. “The ‘Never-Evers’ of Workshop Facilitation.” Journal of Staff Development,

1992, 13(2), 38–40.

Stahl, M. J.Management: Total Quality in a Global Environment. Cambridge,Mass.: Blackwell,

1995.

Thomas, G. J. “A Typology of Approaches to Facilitator Education.” Journal of Experiential

Education, forthcoming.

van Maurik, J. “Facilitating Excellence: Styles and Processes of Facilitation.” Leadership and

Organisational Development Journal, 1994, 15(8), 30–34.

Warren, K. “A Call for Race, Gender, and Class Sensitive Facilitation in Outdoor Experiential

Education.” Journal of Experiential Education, 1998, 21(1), 21–25.

Weaver, R. G., and Farrell, J.D.Managers as Facilitators. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1997.

Webne-Behrman, H. The Practice of Facilitation: Managing Group Process and Solving

Problems.Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1998.

Weinstein, K. Action Learning: A Practical Guide. (2nd ed.) Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower,

1999.

White, S. A. “Participation:Walk the Talk!” In S. A.White (ed.), The Art of Facilitating

Participation: Releasing the Power of Grassroots Communication. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:

Sage, 1999.

Winter, R. Learning from Experience: Principles and Practice in Action Research. Bristol, Pa.:

Falmer Press, 1989.

Chapter Thirty

Cooperrider, D. L., Sorensen, P. F. Jr.,Whitney, D., and Yaeger, T. F. (eds.). Appreciative

Inquiry: Rethinking Human Organization Toward a Positive Theory of Change. Champaign,

Ill.: Stipes Publishing, 2000.

Doyle, M., and Straus, D. How to Make Meetings Work: The Interaction Method. New York:

Jove, 1976.

References 635

Emery,M. Participative Design for Participative Democracy. Canberra: Australian National

University, 1993.

Firkins, J. “Trust, Safety and Equity.” Jan. 2002. [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EVTT/

files/Discussion on trust.txt].

Hunter, D., Bailey, A., and Taylor, B. The Art of Facilitation. Auckland: Tandem, 1994.

Hunter, D., Bailey, A., and Taylor, B. Co-operacy: A New Way of Being at Work. Auckland:

Tandem, 1997.

International Association of Facilitators. “Mission, Values and Vision.” Sept. 2004.

[http://www.iaf-world.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3343].

Marvin, F., and Butcher, J. “Essays on Consensus: Consensus Is Primary to Group Facilitation;

Consensus Is Situation Dependent.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications

Journal, 2002, 4(Spring) 56–63.

Owen, H. Open Space Technology: A User’s Guide. Potomac,Md.: Abbott, 1992.

Pierce,V., Cheesebrow, D., and Braun, L. M.“Facilitator Competencies.”Group Facilitation:

A Research and Applications Journal, 2000, 2(2), 24–31.

Rangarajan, N., and Rohrbaugh, J.“Multiple Roles of Online Facilitation: An Example in

Any-Time,Any-Place Meetings.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal,

2003, 5, 26–36.

Schein, E. Process Consultation, Vol. 2: Lessons for Managers and Consultants. Reading,Mass.:

Addison-Wesley, 1987.

Schuman, S. “The Report of the Ethics and Values Think Tank June 2002.” June 2002.

[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EVTT/files/Report of the EVTT 2002.doc].

Schwarz, R. The Skilled Facilitator: A Comprehensive Resource for Consultants, Facilitators,

Managers, Trainers, and Coaches, New and Revised. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002a.

Schwarz, R. “Who Is the Client?” Jan. 2002b. [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EVTT/files/].

Spencer, L. J.Winning Through Meeting the Challenge of Corporate Change with the Technology

of Participation: The Group Facilitation Models of the Institute of Cultural Affairs.

Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1989.

Chapter Thirty-One

Epps, J. “The Journey of Meaning at Work.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Application

Journal, 2003, 5, 17–25.

Gleick, J. Chaos: Making a New Science. London: Cardinal, 1987.

Herbert, N. Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1985.

Niebuhr, H. R. The Meaning of Revelation. New York:Macmillan, 1954.

Niebuhr, H. R. Radical Monotheism and Western Culture. New York: HarperCollins, 1960.

Senge, P. The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday, 1990.

Chapter Thirty-Two

Kaplan, R. E. “Some Hidden Elements of Control in Group Facilitation: Appreciating the

Bounded and Binding Aspects of Openness.” Small Group Behavior, 1985, 16, 462–476.

636 References

Kiser, A. G.Masterful Facilitation: Becoming a Catalyst for Meaningful Change. New York:

AMACOM, 1998.

Rees, F. How to Lead Work Teams: Facilitation Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Rosenberg, M. Nonviolent Communication: The Language of Compassion. San Diego, Calif.:

PuddleDancer Press, 1999.

Webne-Behrman, H. The Practice of Facilitation: Managing Group Process and Solving Problems.

Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1998.

White, S. A. (ed.). The Art of Facilitating Participation: Releasing the Power of Grassroots

Communication. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1999.

Chapter Thirty-Three

Andersen, N. A. “Polyphonic Organizations.” S-WoBA: Scandinavian Working Papers in

Business Administration, 13, 2001.

Boulding, K. The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan,

1966.

Cooperrider, D. L. “Positive Image, Positive Action: The Affirmative Basis of Organizing.”

In S. Srivastva and D. L. Cooperrider (eds.), Appreciative Management and Leadership.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

Cooperrider, D. L. “Appreciative Inquiry: New Horizons for a Positive Revolution in

Change.” Speech at Benedictine University, Lisle, Ill., Nov. 1999.

Cooperrider, D. L., Sorensen, P. F.,Whitney, D., and Yaeger, T. F. (eds.). Appreciative Inquiry:

Rethinking Human Organization Toward a Positive Theory of Change. Champaign, Ill.:

Stipes, 2000.

Frankl, V. E.Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy. New York:Washington

Square Press, 1959.

Heisenberg,W. Physics and Philosophy. New York: HarperCollins, 1958.

Heisenberg,W. “The Physical Content of Quantum Kinematics and Mechanics.” In J. A.

Wheeler and H. Zurek (eds.), Quantum Theory and Measurement. Princeton, N.J.:

Princeton University Press, 1983.

Hock, D.W. Birth of the Chaordic Age. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1999.

Kretzmann, J. P., and McKnight, J. L. Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward

Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Assets. Chicago: ACTA, 1993.

Lefcourt, H. M. Locus of Control: Current Trends in Theory and Research.Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum,

1976.

Mehl-Madrona, L. Coyote Medicine. New York: Scribner, 1997.

Merton, R. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press, 1968.

Morgan, G. Images of Organization: The Executive Edition. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler,

1998.

Polack, F. The Image of the Future. New York: Elsevier, 1973.

Rosenthal, R. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectations and Pupils’ Intellectual Development.

New York: Holt, 1968.

References 637

Rotter, J. B. “Generalized Expectations for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement.”

Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 1966, 80(1), 1–28.Whole No. 609.

Schein, E. Process Consultation Revisited: Building the Helping Relationship. Reading,Mass.:

Addison-Wesley, 1999.

Schuman, S. P. “Believe in Doubt.”Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal,

2002, 4, 1.

Shermer,M. Why People Believe Weird Things. New York: Holt, 1997.

Troxel, J. P. Participation Works: Business Cases from Around the World. Alexandria, Va.:

Miles River, 1993.

638 References

639

N A M E I N D E X

A

Abdullah, A., 263, 267, 269

Abelson, R., 396

Adams, J.W., 297

Adler, N., 256, 261

Agazarian, Y. M., 243, 249, 251

Alban, B. T., 338, 491, 492

Alexander, C., 382, 398, 418

Allen, S. D., 541

Andersen, N. A., 603

Anderson, J., 297

Archer, D., 539

Aretz, A., 216

Argyris, C., 23, 25, 29–30, 533

Arnold, K. J., 495

Arthur,W. B., 474

Asch, S., 250

Ashraf, N., 297

Atlee, T., 208

Attaran, M., 297

Attaran, S., 297

Axelrod, E., 230

Axelrod, R., 230

B

Bailey, A., 205, 528, 530, 534, 536, 539, 550, 557

Baker, L. L., 459

Bal, J., 296

Ballantine, R., 305, 309

Ballard, B., 275

Barnard, C., 1–3

Bartel, C. A., 107

Bates, M., 39

Bazerman, M. H., 353

Beach, L. R., 353, 431

Beasley, C., 271

Beavin, J. H., 136

Beckhard, R., 340

Bell, N., 7

Bendaly, L., 528, 530

Bender, T., 74

Benne, K., 137

Bennett, M., 258

Bennis,W. G., 453

Bens, I., 328

Bentley, T., 528, 532

Bergdall, T. D., 421, 430, 438, 441, 444

Berger, D., 123

Berk, R., 536, 538

Berne, E., 45

Berry, B., 106

Berry, P. C., 103

Bertalanffy, L., 243

Beyerlein, M., 295

Biderman, P.W., 453

Bion,W., 37, 46, 243

Birchmeier, Z., 104

Blainey, J., 264

Blanchard, K. H., 355, 534

Bleandonu, G., 37

Block, C. H., 103

Block, P., 63

Bohm, D., 208, 209, 271, 488

Bolen, T., 216

Boone, M. E., 450

Bostrom, R. P., 84, 525, 527, 532

Bouchard, T. J., 106

Boughton, N.W., 60–61

640 Name Index

Boulding, K., 431–432, 592

Box, G.E.P., 538

Bracken, J., 57

Bradley, J., 106

Bradley, L., 295, 305, 309

Brassard, M., 328, 331

Braun, L. M., 461, 463, 526, 527, 530, 531, 536,

539, 547, 550

Brenson-Lazán, G., 256, 257, 261, 262, 264, 279

Brislin, R.W., 263

Brockbank, A., 528, 531

Broussine, M., 528, 536, 537, 538

Brown, J., 231

Brown, J. S., 486

Brown,V. R., 103, 110

Brunon, J., 160

Buber, M., 208

Bunker, B. B., 338, 491, 492

Burbules, N. C., 536, 538

Burns, J., 160

Burson, M., 182, 265

Butcher, J., 553–554

Buzan, T., 385

C

Cady, S. H., 338

Calero, H., 215

Camacho, L. M., 106

Capra, F., 349

Carr,W., 540

Caudill,W.W., 385

Cervero, R. M., 537

Chakraborty, S. K., 256

Chang, S., 271

Channon, J., 160

Cheesebrow, D., 461, 463, 526, 527, 530, 531,

536, 539, 547, 550

Chi, M.T.H., 539

Chilberg, J., 135, 137, 140, 143, 144, 149

Chrislip, D. D., 191

Churchill,W., 75

Cini, M. A., 49, 173

Clanchy, J., 275

Cole, C. R., 226

Coleman, P., 366

Collins, B. E., 137

Collins, J., 482

Connell, J. B., 298, 299

Connelly, J., 427

Cooperrider, D., 45, 212, 220, 431, 556, 594,

595, 603

Coskun, H., 108, 110

Cottingham, S., 539

Cousins, J. B., 424

Covey, S., 98

Creighton, J. L., 297

Cunningham,W., 492

D

Dannemiller, K., 230, 338, 342, 345

Davies, R., 432, 439

Davis, K., 264

Davis, S., 213

de Bono, E., 271

Delbecq, A. L., 109, 146

Denison, D., 201

Denning, S., 487

Dennis, A. R., 109

Denzin, N. K., 540, 541

Dessler, G., 357

Deutsch, M., 366

Devane, T., 482, 491

Devereux, K., 216

Devine, D. J., 106

Diehl, M., 105

Digh, P., 258

Distefano, J. J., 255, 261–262, 263, 264

Dixon, N., 233

Domanovi ´c, R., 434

Donnelly, J., 427

Dooley, K., 539

Douther, C., 297

Doyle, M., 143, 144, 160, 556

Driver, D., 389

Drucker, P., 49

Duarte, D., 296

Dugosh, K. L., 109

Dutton, J. E., 45

Dzindolet, M. T., 111

E

Edmonstone, J., 528, 530

Edwards, A., 214–215

Eggers, M., 335

Einstein, A., 206, 397

Eisenhardt, K. M., 228

Ellinger, A. D., 525, 527, 532

Ellinor, L., 207, 337

Name Index 641

Elliot, J., 540

Elliott, J., 241

Emery, M., 557

Epps, J., 563, 570

Erlandson, D. A., 541

Estrella, M., 424

Ezzy, D., 541

F

Factor, D., 271, 488

Farr, M. J., 539

Farrell, J. D., 477, 526, 528, 532

Fels, D., 297

Fetterman, D. M., 426

Figallo, C., 215

Firkins, J., 551

Fischer, S., 89, 100

Fisher, C. J., 201–202

Fisher, R., 327, 364, 367

Fisk, S., 123

Fitz-Gibbon, C. T., 426

Fleming, G. P., 111

Flick, D. L., 208

Flor, R., 539

Fluke, A., 209

Folger, J. P., 358

Fox,W. M., 141, 143, 144

Frankl,V. E., 174, 177, 601

Fraser, C., 459

Free, K., 315

Freeman, H. E., 422

Freire, P., 539

Frey, L. R., 351

Friedlob, G. T., 449

G

Gardenswartz, L., 258

Gardner, H., 37, 50–51

Garrett, P., 271, 488

Garvin, D., 507

Gass, M., 528, 534

Gaventa, J., 424

Gerard, G., 207, 337

Gergen, K. J., 178, 540

Gergen, M. M., 540

Geschka, H., 109, 271

Gesell, I., 281

Gibb, J. R., 141

Giddens, A., 430

Gillan, P. G., 146, 147, 148, 149

Gilley, J.W., 60–61

Gillis, L., 528, 534

Glaser, R., 539

Gleick, J., 570

Goleman, D., 34, 37

Goodpaster, J., 213

Goodwill, B., 264

Gouran, D. S., 351, 352, 353, 357, 358, 359, 360

Grawitch, M. J., 113

Guba, E. G., 540

Guetzkow, H., 137

Gupta,V., 184

Gustafson, D. H., 109

H

Habermas, J., 536, 541

Hackett, D., 530

Hackman, J. R., 137, 453

Hall, E. T., 267

Hall, J., 359

Halprin, L., 160

Hampden-Turner, C., 267

Hare, A. P., 450

Hargadon, A., 103

Harris, E. L., 541

Harris, R. T., 340

Hart, L. B., 528, 530

Hatry, H. P., 422, 426

Havergal, M., 528, 530

Heierbacher, S., 207, 208, 209

Heisenberg,W., 599

Heraclitus, 35

Herbert, N., 570

Herek, G., 358

Herman, J. L., 426

Heron, J., 528, 533, 534

Hersey, P., 355, 534

Hickling, A., 78–79

Hill, N., 509

Hirokawa, R. Y., 143, 351, 352, 353

Hock, D.W., 286, 603

Hofstede, G., 267

Hogan, C. F., 255, 256, 261, 271, 272, 277, 278,

526, 528, 530, 531, 536, 539

Holman, P., 482, 491

Honey, P., 259

Horn, R. E., 160, 384, 385, 387, 389, 419, 486

Hoskins, S., 481

642 Name Index

House, R. J., 357

Hovenlynck, J., 540

Hovland, C. I., 359

Hughes, C., 528, 537

Hughes-Rease, M., 335

Hunter, D., 205, 528, 530, 534, 536, 539, 545,

547, 550, 557

Huth, P., 358

I

Isaacs,W., 207, 208, 209

Ishikawa, S., 398

J

Jack, M., 297

Jackson, D. D., 137

Jacobs, R.W., 84

James, P., 531

James, S., 335

Jamieson, D.W., 530

Janis, I., 104, 178, 353, 354, 356, 357, 358, 359

Janoff, S., 84, 230, 241, 242

Jarboe, S., 149, 150

Jaworski, J., 207, 474

Jenkins, J. C., 415, 473, 484, 489

Jenkins, M. R., 413, 481, 484, 489

Jensen, M. A., 38

Jensen, A. D., 144, 149

Jensen, M. A., 278

John-Steiner,V., 103

Johnstone, K., 282

Jung, C. G., 36, 37

Justice, T., 530

K

Kaftarian, S. J., 426

Kahn, R. L., 38

Kaner, S., 115, 123

Kaplan, R. E., 22, 579, 580, 587

Kaplin, B., 212, 220

Karau, S. J., 104

Kartes, C., 87

Kashtan, M., 573

Katz, D., 38

Katzenbach, J. R., 315, 316

Keirsey, D., 39

Kelley, H. H., 359

Kelley, S., 161

Kelly, K., 385

Keltner, J., 495

Kemmis, S., 540

Keyton, J., 137

Khalsa, M., 368

Kimball, L., 225

Kincheloe, J. L., 541

King, M. L., Jr., 478

Kinney, S., 84

Kipling, R., 243

Kirby, G., 213

Kirk, J., 461

Kirk, P., 528, 536, 538

Kiser, A. G., 576, 578, 586

Knowles, M. S., 460

Kramer, T. J., 111, 113

Kretzmann, J., 430, 596

Kuchenmüller, R., 381, 386, 486

Kumar, K., 107

Kurtzberg, T. R., 107

L

Landau, J. H., 161

Larey, T. S., 107, 110

Larsen, K.R.T., 527

Lawrence, P. R., 243, 245

Lazarus, A., 431

Lefcourt, H. M., 601

LeMay, E. A., 295, 296

Leong, F. L., 185

Lerner, J. S., 104

Levin, M., 213

Lewin, K., 243

Lincoln, Y. S., 540, 541

Lind, L., 123

Lindberg, C., 228

Lippitt, R., 243

Lipsey, M.W., 422

Long, A., 431

Long, N., 431

Lorsch, J.W., 243, 245

Loup, R., 335

M

Maal, N., 160, 385

Madonik, B., 215

Maier, N.R.F., 178, 495

Mann, L., 104, 178, 353, 354, 358

Mannis, S. M., 111

Mao Ze Dong, 483

Name Index 643

Marcum, D., 368

Margulies, N., 160, 385

Marrow, A. J., 243

Marsick,V. J., 526

Marston,W. M., 36–37

Martin, C. L., 530

Marvin, F., 553, 554

Maslow, A., 174, 176

Mathews, J.W., 483

May, R., 176

Maycunich, A., 60–61

Mayer, J. D., 34

Maznevski, M. L., 255, 261–262, 263, 264

McArthur, P., 30

McCartt, A. T., 452

McDonald, J.W., 208

McGill, I., 528, 531

McGrath, J. E., 453

McKnight, J., 430, 596

McLaren, P., 541

Meeker, L., 89, 100

Mehl-Madrona, L., 600

Mennecke, B. E., 106

Merton, R., 599

Meyer, M.W., 449

Meyer, N. D., 450

Meyers, R. A., 357

Michaelson, L. K., 107

Michalak, B., 89, 100

Miller, G. A., 160

Milliken, F. J., 107

Milter, R. J., 450

Miscisin, M., 40

Mohr, B. J., 487

Mongeau, P. A., 525

Morgan, G., 483, 486, 600

Morr, M. C., 525

Morris, L. L., 426

Mumford, A., 259

Munz, D. C., 113

Murphy, J., 478

Murray, H., 243

Musashi, M., 473

N

Nagda, B., 209, 220

Nakui, T., 103, 111, 112

Napolitano, C. S., 329

Nash, T., 548

Nathanson, L., 146, 147, 148, 149

Neely, A., 449

Nelson, J., 86, 461

Nemeth, C. J., 104

Nemeth-Brown, Z., 104

Newcomer, K. E., 422, 426

Niebuhr, H. R., 566, 567

Niederman, F., 525

Nierenberg, G., 215

Nijstad, B., 103

Nisbett, R., 354

Niziol, F., 315

Nurre, S., 7

O

Offner, A. K., 111

Ortega, A. H., 107, 110

Osborn, A. F., 105, 111

Owen, H., 233, 474, 479, 480, 481, 485,

556

Oxley, N. L., 111

P

Palmer, P., 216

Parry, L., 528, 530

Parschall, S., 385

Parsons, T., 450, 455

Patton, B., 327, 364, 367

Patton, M. Q., 423, 425, 427

Paulus, P. B., 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109,

110, 111, 112

Peck, M. S., 132

Peña,W., 385

Philbrook, L., 256

Philips, J. L., 106

Phnuyal, B., 539

Pierce,V., 461, 463, 526, 527, 530, 531, 536,

539, 547, 550

Pike, R.W., 71

Plewa, R. J., 449

Plsek, P., 228

Poister, T. H., 449

Polak, F., 431, 592

Poole, M. S., 137, 138, 358

Porter, R. E., 269

Powell, C. F., 430, 438, 441

Priest, S., 528, 534

Prince, G., 148, 150

Putman,V. L., 111, 112

644 Name Index

Putnam, R., 30

Pyser, S. N., 205, 215

Q

Quinn, R. E., 450

R

Rangarajan, N., 455, 555

Ransdell, E., 486

Rao, P.U.B., 460

Rasmussen, D. M., 536

Reagan, P., 452

Rechner, P. L., 357

Rees, F., 576

Reese, R., 263, 264, 265

Reina, D., 90

Reina, M., 90

Reynolds, C., 228

Riley, M., 140

Ringer, M., 528, 535

Ritberger, C., 40

Ritter, D., 328, 331

Robinson, L., 427

Rodas-Meeker, M. B., 89

Roethlisberger, F. J., 115

Rogers, C., 37, 115, 174, 175, 528, 535

Rohrbaugh, J., 449, 450, 452, 455, 555

Roland, E. J., 109

Rosenberg, M., 14, 574

Rosenthal, R., 598–599

Ross, L., 354

Rossi, P. H., 422

Rotter, J. B., 601

Rottmann, D., 479

Rough, J., 478, 479, 485

Rounds, J., 492

Rowe, A., 258

Ruete, N., 478

Russo, J. E., 368

S

Saint-Exupéry, A., 415

Salazar, A., 138, 143

Salovey, P., 34

Samovar, L. A., 269

Sandberg,W. R., 357

Satir,V., 277

Saunders, H., 207, 208

Schank, R. C., 396

Scharmer, C. O., 474–475, 476

Schaude, G. R., 109, 271

Schein, E., 38, 49, 192, 476, 553, 593

Schlicksupp, H., 109, 271

Schliefer, L. F., 449

Schnelle, E., 271

Schoem, D., 207

Schoemaker, P.J.H., 368

Schön, D. A., 25, 30, 533, 534, 540

Schuman, S., 1, 171, 178, 215, 547, 548, 550, 603

Schwarz, R. M., 11, 21, 351, 461, 485, 487, 488,

528, 531, 533, 534, 547, 550, 552–553

Schweiger, D. M., 357

Scott, S., 213

Seibold, D., 137, 141, 143, 144, 147

Seiford, B., 335

Senge, P. M., 31, 70, 86, 182, 208, 211, 453, 474,

476, 483, 527, 570

Sharp, P. A., 530

Shaw, B., 94

Sheats, P., 137

Shephard, P., 263, 269

Shermer, M., 599

Sherwood, J. J., 110

Sibbet, D., 155, 162, 178, 385, 486

Sieberg, E., 141

Silber, T., 225

Silverstein, M., 398

Sjodin, T., 509

Skipper, B. L., 541

Smith, D. K., 315, 316

Smith, D. M., 30

Smith, S., 111, 368

Smithe, G., 315

Snyder, N., 296

Sorensen, P. F., Jr., 556, 603

Spencer, L. J., 61, 84, 479, 483, 556

Spolin,V., 286

Stacey, R. D., 227

Stahl, M. J., 526

Stanfield, R. B., 463, 479

Stasser, G., 104

Stern, G. J., 49

Stewart, A., 487

Stewart, G. L., 106

Stifel, M., 381, 486

Stratford, K., 161

Straus, D., 143, 144, 160, 191, 192, 296, 297, 556

Name Index 645

Stroebe,W., 105

Stutman, R. K., 358

Sue, D., 182

Sue, D.W., 182

Sull, D. M., 228

Sunwolf, 137, 141, 143, 144, 147

Sutton, R. I., 103

Swain,V. M., 211

T

Tahar, M., 461

Taylor, B., 205, 528, 530, 534, 536, 539, 550,

557

Taylor, D.W., 103

Teo, P., 296

Tetlock, P. E., 104

Thomas, G. J., 525, 529

Thorpe, S., 545

Toldi, C., 123

Triandis, H. C., 185

Trist, E. L., 243

Trompenaars, F., 267

Trosten-Bloom, A., 212, 220

Troxel, J. P., 591, 597

Tuckman, B., 37–38, 46, 47–48, 132, 278, 315

Tuecke, P., 73

Tye, M., 431

U

Ulschak, F. L., 146, 147, 148, 149

Ury,W. L., 327, 364, 367

V

Van de Ven, A. H., 109, 146

Van Gundy, A., 109, 110

van Maurik, J., 534

Vennix, J., 477

Verghese, T., 256, 271

Vogelsong, L., 40

Volkema, R., 359, 525

Vroom,V. H., 201

W

Wagner-Johnson, D., 305, 309

Waldrop,M. M., 286

Wandersman, A., 426

Wardle, I., 282

Warren, K., 537

Watkins, J. M., 487

Watkins, K. E., 526

Watson, R., 84

Watson,W. E., 107

Watson,W. H., 359

Watzlawick, P., 136

Wayne, D., 35

Weaver, R. G., 477, 526, 528, 532

Webne-Behrman, H., 527, 576

Weinstein, K., 540

Weinstein, N., 225, 234

Weir, J., 243, 248

Weisbord, M., 84, 230, 241, 242

Weiss, P., 297

Welch, D. A., 367–368

White, B. J., 106

White, N., 556

White, S. A., 537, 576, 579, 589

White, T., 243

Whitmore, E., 424

Whitney, D., 212, 220, 556, 603

Whittaker, S., 297

Wholey, J. S., 422, 426

Wickman, F., 509

Wilkinson, M., 361, 378, 461

Williams, B., 386

Williams, D., 74, 75

Williams, K. D., 104

Williams, M. L., 109

Wilson, A. L., 537

Wilson, E. O., 225

Winter, J. P., 111

Winter, R., 540

Wong, P.T.P., 171, 174, 177, 178, 182, 184, 185

Wright, B. E., 452

Wydra, N., 74, 75

Y

Yaeger, T. F., 556, 603

Yang, H. C., 109, 110

Yankelovich, D., 208

Young, A., 385

Z

Zarefsky, D., 136

Zhu, L. S., 161

Zimmerman, B., 228

Zuniga, X., 209, 220

647

S U B J E C T I N D E X

A

Abilene paradox, 492

Action: drawing, in visual facilitation, 394,

411–414; by facilitator in multiplestakeholder

collaboration, 131–132; supporting,

in graphic facilitation, 168

Adjourning stage, group development, 38, 48

Adventure training, as trust-building technique,

100

Affiliative constraints on communication,

356–357

Affirmative facilitation, 591–607; benefits of,

607; criticism of, 606–607; developments

sharing approach of, 594–596, 598–600;

distinctive character of, 602–604; empowerment

of group members with, 596–598;

evolution of, 592–594; freedom released

with, 600–602; fundamental beliefs of,

592; techniques for adopting style of,

694–696; theoretical basis of, 592

After Action Reviews, 481, 490, 507

Agenda: caution on, 68; creating, 67; for

Start-Up meeting, 318, 319; for virtual

meetings, 306

American Society for Training and Development

(ASTD), 460

Amiable operating style, 16

Analytical operating style, 16

Appalachian Center for Economic Networks,

226

Appreciative Inquiry (AI), 99, 487, 556, 594–595

Asset-based community development, 430,

595–596

Assumptions, 563–571; about group members

as contributors, 564–565; about what

facilitators are, 569–571; about what facilitators

do, 567–569; about what facilitators

know, 565–567

Attitude surveys, trust measured in, 96

Audiences, 489–494; hierarchical vs. egalitarian,

493–494; large vs. small, 490–492;

monochromatic vs. polychromatic, 490;

single party vs.multiple party, 492–493

Auditory thinking style, 15

Authenticity, and neutrality, 176

Autonomy, group, 554, 560

B

Baldrige National Quality Program Criteria

for Program Excellence, 59, 61, 67

Basic facilitation, 24

Best practices, documentation of, 506

Big Picture approach, 8–20; building trust in, 12;

communicating intentionally in, 15–16; evaluating

satisfaction in, 19–20; interviewing effectively

in, 10–11; listening empathetically

in, 13–14; preparing in, 9–10; quality’s

role in, 14–15; recognizing potential challenges

in, 18–19; thinking about clients in,

16–17; understanding client’s needs in, 17–18

Birth of the Chaordic Age (Hock), 603

Books, on facilitation, 499–500

Brainstorming. See Group brainstorming

Brainwriting technique, 109

Building facilitation expertise. See Facilitator

education; Professional development

648 Subject Index

C

CD-ROM, how to use, 1–2

Celebrations, 182, 569

Certification. See Professional certification

Change: behavior, and images, 430–432; dialogue

as agent of, 208–209; improvisation

as bringing about, 291; and locus of control,

600–602; organizational reality model

of, 474–477; small, big effects from, 229;

social, facilitators as agents of, 570–571;

systemic, of organizations, 192, 194; of

thinking, 29–31; trust important for, 94.

See also Participatory evaluation through

stories of change

Chaos, edge of, 229

Chaos theory, 603–604

Chartering bodies, 316

Circles in the Air exercise, 238

Clapping exercise, 260–261

Client-centered approach, 37

Clients: Big Picture approach to relationship

with, 7–20; evaluating satisfaction of,

19–20; gathering information about,

58–60; IAF Code of Ethics on, 552–553,

559; needs and expectations of, 17–18,

60–62, 92; thinking about, 16–17; trust

between facilitators and, 12, 91–92

Closure on commitments, graphic facilitation,

167–168

Code of ethics. See International Association

of Facilitators (IAF), Statement of Values

and Code of Ethics for Group Facilitators

Cofacilitation: building expertise using, 508; of

virtual meetings, 302, 304–305, 309; in visual

facilitation, 391

Cognitive constraints on communication,

354–356

Cognitive stimulation, and group brainstorming,

108–110

Collaboration: mutual understanding necessary

for, 117; virtual, 296–297. See also

Multiple-stakeholder collaboration

Collaborative culture. See Collaborative environments

Collaborative environments, 195–203; characteristics

of, 192–193; conditions for building,

193–194; five-pronged approach to

building, 195–202; importance of, 203

Collective Inquiry Model of dialogue, 209, 211

Commitments, closure on, in graphic facilitation,

167–168

Common information bias, as hindrance to

group functioning, 104

Communication: functional theory of, in

decision-making groups, 351–360; importance

of, to group decision making, 136,

138, 151; intentional, in Big Picture approach,

15–16; message dimension of,

136–137; nonviolent (NVC), 573–574, 577,

583; and operating styles, 15–16; to show

thinking about client, 17; and thinking

styles, 15. See also Group communication

Community At Work,multiple-stakeholder

collaboration case study from, 116–132

Community development, asset-based, 430,

595–596

Community Empowerment Program (CEP)

(Ethiopia), 430, 435, 436–437, 440–443

Competencies: core, IAF’s definition of, 213,

461, 463–464, 468–471, 546–547; defined,

460; of facilitators using meaning-centered

counseling (MCC) approach, 183–185;

IAF’s model of, 527, 531. See also Professional

certification; Skills

Competency-based training, 531

The Complete Facilitator (Heron), 533

Complexity, increase in, 2

Complexity science, 225–240; applied to meeting

facilitation, 235–239; on characteristics

of complex adaptive systems, 227–230; design

principles from, for facilitating meetings,

230–234; general information on,

225–227; resources on, 239–240

Conference Model, 230

Conferences, professional, 498

Confidentiality, IAF Code of Ethics on, 556, 561

Conflict of interest: disclosure of, 91; IAF

Code of Ethics on, 554–555, 560

Conflict Research Consortium, 206, 219

Conflict resolution sessions, 366

Consensus building. See Consensus decision

making

Consensus decision making, 361–380; approaches

to, 367–368; converge technique

for, 379; danger of groupthink to, 178; delineation

technique for, 369–374; five-finger

consensus technique for, 378–379; and IAF

Subject Index 649

Code of Ethics, 553–554; and levels of disagreements,

361–367; merge technique for,

376–378; in Start-Up meetings, 324, 325;

strengths and weaknesses technique for,

374–376; weighted score technique for, 379

Consensus rule, interaction method, 146

Consensus-seeking rules, for groups with egocentric

restraints, 359

Consultation: expert vs. process, 593–594; focusing

on people, 594, 606–607; focusing

on problems, 593, 606; peer (intervisie),

488, 492

Content interventions, 484

Continuing education. See Professional

development

Continuous improvement, as goal of performance

measurement, 449, 452, 455

Control: giving up, 292–293; locus of, and

change, 600–602

Converge technique, consensus decision making,

379

Converge/diverge principle, designing conversations

in large group meetings, 338–340

Convergent thinking, 122

Conversation About Conflict, 223

Conversation Café, 219–220, 221

Conversations. See Dialogue

Core competencies. See Competencies

Core values. See Values

Creating an edge, 232–234, 237, 238

Creative Evaluation (Patton), 427

Creative Training Techniques Handbook

(Pike), 71

Critical approaches, facilitator education, 528,

529, 536–538

Critical Incident Technique, 532

Critiques: by group members, 507; by other

facilitators, 508–509

Cultural iceberg model, 266

Cultural suitcases exercise, 267

Culture: defined, 255–256; focusing on dimensions

of, with multicultural groups,

267–277; group, 49–50; mapping, 264–270;

organizational, attitude surveys on, 96. See

also Multicultural groups

D

Dannemiller Tyson Associates, 336, 340

Debate, dialogue vs., 207, 210–211

Debriefs: formal, 507; with improvisation, 289;

in meaning-centered counseling approach,

182; of virtual meetings, 309, 311

Decision making, participatory, diamond

model of, 124, 131–132. See also Consensus

decision making; Functional theory of

communication in decision-making

groups; Group decision making

Decisions, Decisions (Welch), 367–368

Deliberation, dialogue vs., 208

Delineation technique, consensus decision

making, 369–374

Denison Organizational Culture Survey, 201–202

Dependency, 23, 37, 46

Design approaches, 479–481; prestructured vs.

self-organizing, 479–480; scripted vs.

emergent, 480–481; serial threads vs. parallel

threads, 481

Developmental facilitation, 24

Diagnosis–intervention cycle, Skilled Facilitator

approach, 28

Dialogue, 205–223; Collective Inquiry Model

of, 209, 211; Conversation Café model of,

219–220, 221; conversation starters for,

220, 222; debate vs., 207, 210–211; defined,

206, 207; deliberation vs., 208; example of

designing, 212–213; framing and asking

questions in, 216–218; guidelines for designing

and leading, 213–219; history of

movement for, 208; planning for, in large

group meetings, 338–341; as possible

change agent, 208–209; potential opportunities

for, 205–206; resources on, 222–223;

simple rules for, 233; workshops vs., 488

Differentiation-integration (D/I) theory,

241–254; and designing meetings, 242,

245–246; facilitation based on, 242,

243–245; and managing meetings, 242,

247–252; and managing ourselves, 242,

252–254; theoretical basis of, 243

Difficult behaviors, of group members, 40–46,

175–176

Dimensions of Facilitator Education Model,

528–541; critical dimension of, 528, 529,

536–538; intentional dimension of, 528,

529, 531–535; limitations of, 538–541;

person-centered dimension of, 528, 529,

535–536; technical dimension of, 528, 529,

530–531, 533

650 Subject Index

Disagreements: example of, 361–362; fostered

by specialization, 2; identifying level of,

367; level 1 (information), 361, 362–363;

level 2 (experience or values), 361,

363–365; level 3 (outside factors), 361,

365–366

DISC Profile, 37, 39

Divergent thinking, 122

Diversity: checklist on, when designing workshops,

257–259; designing dialogue on,

212–213; effect of, on group brainstorming,

107; importance of trust when working

with, 90–91. See also Multicultural

groups

Documentation: of best practices, 506; of large

group meetings, 344; of process, 67–68;

required for professional certification, 465;

of virtual meetings, 309, 311; in visual

facilitation, 394–395, 418

Drawing actions, visual facilitation, 394,

411–414

Driver operating style, 15

DVF model, designing conversations in large

group meetings, 340

Dynamic Facilitation, 479, 480, 485, 490

E

Edge of chaos, 229

Education. See Facilitator education; Professional

development

Egocentric constraints on communication,

357–359

Egoless presence, facilitators in meetings,

349–350

Eight Ps approach to preparation, 58–71; people

in, 58, 62–63; personal preparation in,

58, 69–71; perspective in, 58–60; place in,

58, 64–67; practice in, 58, 68–69; process

in, 58, 67–68; product in, 58, 63–64; purpose

in, 58, 60–62

Electronic Discussion on Group Facilitation,

389

Electronic media, facilitation training using,

497–498

Emergent design, managing, in large group

meetings, 341–342

Emotional bank account, 98

Emotional intelligence, 37

Emotional organigram technique, visual

facilitation, 409–411, 418

Emotional skills, and Skilled Facilitator approach,

33–34

Emotions, readiness associated with, 69–70

The Emotions of Normal People (Marston), 37

Empathetic listening, 13–14, 588

Empowerment: with affirmative facilitation,

596–598; and trust, 97

Ethics: facilitators as role models of, 92; issues

regarding, clarified by IAF Code of Ethics,

549–555. See also International Association

of Facilitators (IAF), Statement of

Values and Code of Ethics for Group

Facilitators

Ethics and Values Think Tank (EVTT): development

of IAF Code of Ethics by, 547–549;

ethics issues discussed by, 549–555

Evaluation: of client satisfaction, 19–20;

daily written, in large group meetings,

342; and organizational learning, 421;

program, 422–424. See also Participatory

evaluation

Existential/humanistic psychology, and

meaning-centered counseling (MCC),

174, 176, 177

Expectations, client, 60–61

Experiences: disagreements based on different,

361, 363–365; facilitation, learning from,

504–506

Experiential learning, as trust-building technique,

100–101

Expert consultation, 593–594

Expressive operating style, 16

F

Facilitation. See Group facilitation

The Facilitation Skills Training Kit (Bendaly), 530

Facilitator Accreditation Services Ltd. (FAS), 462

Facilitator Competency Model, 527, 531

Facilitator education, 525–541; areas for research

in, 538–541; critical approaches to,

528, 529, 536–538; defined, 528; demand

for, in organization development (OD),

526–528; intentional approaches to, 528,

529, 531–535; person-centered approaches

to, 528, 529, 535–536; technical approaches

to, 528, 529, 530–531, 533. See also Professional

development

Subject Index 651

Facilitators: actions of, in multiple-stakeholder

collaboration, 131–132; common errors

made by, 179–180; competencies and characteristics

of, using meaning-centered

counseling (MCC) approach, 183–185;

criteria for, in Skilled Facilitator approach,

22; critiques by other, 508–509; egoless presence

of, in large group meetings, 349–350;

increased demand for, 459–460; intervention

by, 23; observing other, 502–503; personal

preparation by, in Eight Ps approach,

69–71; situations benefiting from, 171–174,

477; trust between clients and, 12, 91–92;

trust between groups and, 92–94

Facilitators, roles of: in group brainstorming,

111; in improvisation, 291–292; of large

group meetings, 345–346; in meaningcentered

counseling (MCC) approach, 187;

as process guides, 549–550; in Skilled Facilitator

approach, 24; in Start-Up method,

317, 320–321

Facilitator’s Toolkit (Havergal and Edmonstone),

530

Fairy tale technique, visual facilitation, 402–404

Faultless Facilitation Method, 530

Feedback: accepting, 71; in affirmative facilitation,

605–606; from group members,

506–508; in meaning-centered counseling

approach, 182; owning, in transparent facilitation,

586–588; from peers, 508–510

Feng shui, 74–75

The Fifth Discipline (Senge), 70

Fight-or-flight response, 37, 46–47

Films, learning from, 503–504

Five-finger consensus technique, consensus

decision making, 378–379

Flawless Consulting (Block), 63

Flexibility, and trust between facilitator and

group, 93

Focus questions, 61–62

Focus rule, interaction method, 144–145

Follow-up: feedback obtained from, 508; for

large group meetings, 344–345

Formative evaluations, 422

Forming stage, group development, 37, 47, 315

Four Seasons (personality inventory instrument),

40, 51–53

Framing assignments, large group meetings,

347–348

Functional theory of communication in

decision-making groups, 351–360; on affiliative

constraints, 356–357; central proposition

of, 352; on cognitive constraints,

354–356; on egocentric constraints,

357–359; and knowledge and skills to

enhance facilitation, 359–360; overview of,

352–353. See also Group communication;

Group decision making

The Functions of the Executive (Barnard), 1–2

Future Search, 84, 230, 242, 482, 483, 487, 557

G

Game technique, visual facilitation, 404–406

Gender, and group brainstorming, 107

Goal Oriented Project Planning (GOPP), 474,

487, 492

Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD)

program (Philippines), 430, 444–445

Graphic facilitation, 155–169, 557; advantages

of, 155, 159–160, 169; case example of,

156–159; and Grove Facilitation Model,

162–164; history of, 160–161; processes

benefiting from, 161; products of, 486;

skills required of facilitator using,

155–156; steps in, 164–169. See also Visual

facilitation

Graphic Gameplan, 167–168

Graphic Guides, Inc., 160

Graphic recording, 156, 231

Groan Zone: defined, 123; in diamond model

of participatory decision making, 124;

group discussion in, 124–125; inevitability

of, in multiple-stakeholder collaboration,

132–133; listening in, 126; multiple visits

to, 128, 129. See also Storming stage

Ground rules: for dialogue, 215; in meaningcentered

counseling (MCC) approach, 181;

in Skilled Facilitator approach, 26–27; for

Start-Up meetings, 318, 324, 326; for virtual

meetings, 306–307

Group autonomy, IAF Code of Ethics on,

554, 560

Group brainstorming, 103–114; best practices

for, 113–114; factors that hinder, 104–105;

factors that improve, 105–112; and nominal

group technique (NGT) for idea generation,

109, 146–148; rules for, 111, 233;

theory vs. practice of, 112–113

652 Subject Index

Group communication, 135–151; functions of

message behaviors in, 137–138; in interaction

method for meetings, 143–146; in nominal

group technique (NGT) for generating

ideas, 146–148; procedural levels of analysis

of, 139–142; in synectics for creative problem

solving, 148–151. See also Communication;

Functional theory of communication

in decision-making groups

Group culture, 49–50

Group decision making: communication’s importance

to, 136, 138, 151; dynamics of,

120, 122–124; and group brainstorming,

112. See also Functional theory of communication

in decision-making groups;

Group communication; Group decision

processes

Group decision processes: assessing effectiveness

of, 449–455; continuous improvement

of, 449, 452, 455; importance of,

449–450; increased efficiency of, with facilitators,

459–460; measurement of,

450–453; organizational conditions

affecting, 453–455

Group development: Bion’s principles of, 37,

46–47; Tuckman’s stages of, 37–38, 46,

47–48, 315

Group dynamics: asking questions about, 63;

managing, in meaning-centered counseling

approach, 182; origin of term, 243

Group effectiveness model, in Skilled Facilitator

approach, 24

Group facilitation: basic vs. developmental, 24;

complexity and diversity of applications of,

556–557; defined, 21–23, 351; Grove Facilitation

Model of, 162–164; increasing demand

for, 526–527; methods vs. process

focus in, 35–36; as superlative task, 1–3. See

also Affirmative facilitation; Cofacilitation;

Graphic facilitation; Spectra of facilitation;

Transparent facilitation; Visual facilitation

Group Facilitation Methods (Institute of

Cultural Affairs), 61

Group members: addition of new, 48–49; as

contributors, 564–565; dealing with difficult

behaviors of, 40–46, 175–176; diversity

of, and brainstorming, 107; empowerment

of, with affirmative facilitation, 596–598;

feedback from, 506–508; knowledge and

skills of, 106, 359–360; noticing effects of

transparency on, 581–582; training to increase

collaborative skills of, 198–199. See

also People

Groups: celebrating milestones in, 182, 569; as

clients, 552–553; composition of, and

brainstorming, 105–107; large vs. small,

490–492; master mind, 509; psychological

theories relevant to process issues in,

36–38; subgroups in, 243, 248–252, 259;

trust between facilitator and, 92–94; trust

within and between, 94–95; types of,

489–494. See also Large group meetings;

Multicultural groups

Groupthink, 104, 178, 492

Grove Consultants International, 160, 486

Grove Facilitation Model: applied to graphic

facilitation, 164–169; flows in, 162–164

H

Habitat for Humanity, leadership education

program, 98

Hewlett Packard,Work Innovation Network

(WIN) meetings, 234

How to Make Meetings Work (Doyle and

Straus), 160

Human Development Project Planning, 483

Humor, 265, 604

I

I Six Sigma, 484

Ideas: facilitation methods based on, 487;

nominal group technique (NGT) for generating,

109, 146–148

The Image (Boulding), 431

Image theory: affirmative approaches based

on, 592, 594–596, 598–600; on behavior

change, 430–432

Images (in visual facilitation): effect of, 397;

evolution of, 396; live process, 394,

406–414, 418; method of working with,

392–395; and patterns, 398; preparing,

393–394, 399–406, 418; stories told by, 396;

summary, 394–395, 418

Imaginal Training, 486

Impartiality, vs. neutrality, 550

Improvisation, 281–294; benefits of, 281–282,

288, 293–294; change brought about by,

Subject Index 653

291; debriefing games of, 286–290; defined,

281; facilitator as energy director with,

291–292; “One Word at a Time” game of,

283–284, 287, 292; paradoxes of, 292–293;

resources on, 294; structure of, 282–284,

292; tips on, 294; “yes . . . and” principle in,

284–286

Inferences, low-level, in Skilled Facilitator

approach, 28–29

Information: disagreements based on lack of

shared, 361, 362–363; drawing out, in

graphic facilitation, 166–167; gathering, on

client’s organization and operating situation,

58–60

Information exchange. See Group

brainstorming

Information Mapping, 160

Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA): Facilitator

Competency Model, 527, 531; and founding

of IAF, 461; Problem Solving Units,

479. See also Technology of Participation

(ToP) Group Facilitation Methods

Intelligence: emotional, 37; multiple, 37, 50–51

Intentional approaches, facilitator education,

528, 529, 531–535

Interaction Associates, 160

Interaction Method, 143–146, 556

International Association of Facilitators (IAF):

competency model of, 527, 531; core competencies

as defined by, 213, 461, 463–464,

468–471, 546–547; core values of, 546;

establishment of, 461; listserv, 501–502;

mission of, 460, 546; professional certification

by, 461–462, 464–468; and visual facilitation,

389, 391, 416

International Association of Facilitators (IAF),

Statement of Values and Code of Ethics for

Group Facilitators: applied to specific scenarios,

545, 557–558; development of,

547–549; emerging issues for, 555–557;

ethics issues clarified by, 549–555; on facilitator

ownership, 489; text of, 558–561;

and visual facilitators, 391, 505

International Forum of Visual Practitioners, 161

International Institute of Environment and

Development (IIED), 427

Intersubjectivity: defined, 115; in multiplestakeholder

collaboration, 115–116, 123,

131, 132

Interventions: and dependence on facilitators,

23; and diagnosis–intervention cycle in

Skilled Facilitator approach, 28; with implicit

vs. explicit rules, 484–485; process vs.

content, 484

Interviews: in Big Picture approach, 10–11; eliciting

stories in, 98; required for professional

certification, 465, 466; visual facilitation

technique based on, 406–409

Intervisie (peer consultation teams), 488, 492

Introductions: to create participatory climate,

180; for multicultural groups, 259–261; in

Start-Up meetings, 320–321; in virtual

meetings, 305–306

J

Joint Applications Development (JAD), 479,

483, 487, 490

Journals, professional, 500–501

K

Keirsey Temperament Sorter (personality inventory

instrument), 39

Kellogg Foundation, 427

Key result area (KRA), 197

Kinesthetic thinking style, 15

Knowledge: assumptions underlying, of facilitators,

565–567; to enhance facilitation,

359–360

L

Language: exercise on, for multicultural groups,

264–265; tips on, in large group meetings,

347–348; visual, 385, 388, 389, 419

Large group meetings, 335–350; egoless presence

when facilitating, 349–350; follow-up

for, 344–345; logistics preparations for,

343; managing emergent design in,

341–342; managing energy in, 346–347;

meeting space for, 84; planning for conversations

in, 338–341; planning team process

for, 336–337; purpose statement for,

337–338; roles of facilitators of, 345–346;

tips on language use in, 347–348; visual facilitation

techniques for, 399–414; vs. small

group meetings, 490–492

Leadership: actions by, to build collaborative

environments, 195, 196–198; path-goal

theory of, 357; process, 215

654 Subject Index

Leadership Strategies Institute, 379

Learning: experiential, as trust-building technique,

100–101; leveraging, in graphic facilitation,

169; mutual learning model, 30;

names, 261, 604; organizational, evaluation’s

role in, 421

Lego Serious Play, 486

Let’s Talk America, 223

Listening: authentic, to build trust, 92; building

mutual understanding through,

126–128, 133; empathetic, 13–14, 588; lack

of, in group discussions in Groan Zone,

124–125; in multiple-stakeholder collaboration,

124–125, 126–128, 133

Live process images, visual facilitation, 394,

406–414, 418

Locus of control, and change, 600–602

Logotherapy, and meaning-centered counseling

(MCC), 174, 177

M

Managers, facilitator education for, 532

Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 601

Map making technique, visual facilitation, 402

Mapping, cultural, 264–267

Mapping, bridging, and integrating (MBI)

model, 261–264

Master mind groups, 509

Meaning-centered counseling (MCC) approach:

characteristics of effective facilitators

using, 185–187; competencies needed

by facilitators using, 183–185; creating

positive participatory climate in, 179–182;

overview of, 174, 177–179; situations appropriate

for, 188–189; theoretical basis of,

174–177

Measurement, of trust, 95–96. See also Evaluation;

Performance measurement

Meeting space, 73–88; adapting, 87–88;

arrangement of furnishings in, 75–76,

79–84; blocking vs. inviting participation,

75–76, 80, 81; checking out, 64, 66–67,

86–87; creating inviting environment in,

85–86; determining requirements for, 65;

in Eight Ps approach to preparation, 58,

64–67; electronic meeting support

arrangements in, 84–85; and feng shui,

74–75; importance of carefully considering,

73–74, 88; responsibility for, 568; size

and shape of, 77–79; specifications for,

82–84; for Start-Up meetings, 318–320; for

very large groups, 84

Meetings: complexity science applied to,

230–239; differentiation-integration (D/I)

theory applied to, 242, 247–254; diversity

checklist for designing, 257–259; participative,

75–76; time issues with, 67, 219, 568.

See also Large group meetings; Start-Up

meetings; Virtual meetings

Mentoring, 509

Merge technique, consensus decision making,

376–378

Methods: defined, 36; experimenting with,

504–505. See also Spectra of facilitation;

specific methods and techniques

Microsoft Corporation, virtual collaboration

technology, 297

Mirroring process, 277–278

Mission: of International Association of Facilitators

(IAF), 460, 546; of organizations

with collaborative cultures, 195–197, 201;

statement of, in Start-Up meetings,

329–331

Models for Excellence (American Society for

Training and Development), 460

Monitoring progress: in graphic facilitation,

168–169; when building collaborative environments,

200–202

Motivation, level of, and group brainstorming,

107–108

Multicultural groups, 255–280; and cultural

differences, 256; cultural mapping exercises

for, 264–267; diversity checklist for designing

workshops for, 257–259; focusing on

cultural dimensions with, 267–277; and

mapping, bridging, and integrating (MBI)

model, 261–264; mirroring process for,

277–278; tips on facilitating, 279–280;

warm-ups and energizers for, 259–261

Multiple intelligences, 37, 50–51

Multiple-stakeholder collaboration, 115–133;

building mutual understanding for, 117,

126–128, 132, 133; case study of, 116–132;

diamond model of participatory decision

making in, 123, 124, 131–132; facilitator

actions in, 131–132; frames of reference of

participants in, 120, 121; intersubjectivity

problem in, 115–116, 123, 131, 132;

Subject Index 655

potential danger in, 492–493; pseudosolution

in, 118–120

Music, 261, 486, 568

Mutual learning model, 30

Mutual understanding: building, through

listening, 126–128, 133; as necessary for

multiple-stakeholder collaboration, 117, 132

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 37, 39

N

Names: and affirmative facilitation style, 604;

and graphic facilitation, 165; in multicultural

groups, 261

National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation,

222

National Organization of Competency

Assurance, 462

Needs, client: clarifying, 60–61; and trust between

facilitator and client, 92; understanding,

in Big Picture approach, 17–18

Neutrality: competencies in maintaining, 184;

with group members having offensive values

and attitudes, 175–176; transparent facilitation

and, 574–577; vs. impartiality, 550

Newsletters, professional, 501

NLP Learning Systems Corporation, 15

No-attack rule, interaction method, 146

Nominal group technique (NGT), 109, 146–148

Nonviolent communication (NVC): components

of, 574, 583; as tool for transparent

facilitation, 573–574, 577

Nonviolent Communication (Rosenberg), 14

Norming stage, group development, 38, 48

O

On-line facilitation, and IAF Code of Ethics,

555–556. See also Virtual meetings

“One Word at a Time” game, 283–284, 287, 292

Open Space Technology, 233, 474, 479,

480–481, 490, 491, 556

Operating styles, 15–16

Opto International AB, 430, 436, 445

Organization development (OD): appreciative

inquiry (AI) method from, 99, 487, 556,

594–595; demand for facilitator education

in, 526–528; history of, 592–593

Organizational Profile, Baldrige National

Quality Program, 59

Organizational psychology, 38

Organizations: attitude surveys on culture of,

96; collaborative, 191–192; conditions in,

affecting group decision processes,

453–455; developing demographic profile

of, 63; increasing complexity of, 2; level of

trust in, 96–97; organizational reality

model of change in, 474–477; professional,

498–499; systemic change of, 192, 194

Outdoor training, as trust-building

technique, 100

Outside factors, disagreements based on, 361,

365–366

P

Pairing, in group development, 37, 46

Paraphrasing, in empathetic listening, 13

“Parking Lot” technique, 320, 321

Participation: assumption about, by group

members, 564–565; creating positive climate

for, 179–182; ensuring, in large

group meetings, 346–347; meeting space

inviting vs. blocking, 75–76, 80, 81

Participative Strategic Planning, 84

Participatory evaluation, 421–427; defined, 424;

methods used in, 426–427; practical,

424–425; and program evaluation, 422–424;

reasons for increased interest in, 421–422;

resources on, 427; transformative, 425–426.

See also Participatory evaluation through

stories of change

Participatory evaluation through stories of

change, 427–448; asset-based community

development as origin of, 430; and Community

Empowerment Program (CEP)

(Ethiopia), 430, 435, 436–437, 440–443; design

features for, 433–439; example of stories

of change, 428–429; goals of, 432; and

Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD)

program (Philippines), 430, 444–445; possible

applications of, 440; reflections on,

438–440; and relationship between images

and change, 430–432; and Topola Rural

Development Program (TRDP) (Serbia),

430, 433–435, 436, 445–448

Participatory monitoring and evaluation

(PM&E). See Participatory evaluation

Participatory Strategic Planning (Institute of

Cultural Affairs), 61

656 Subject Index

“Pass the Blob” exercise, 260

Path-goal theory of leadership, 357

Peer consultation teams (intervisie), 488, 492

Peer feedback, 508–510

Penn’s Landing Public Forum, 223

People: connecting, in graphic facilitation,

165; consultation focusing on, 594,

606–607; in Eight Ps approach to preparation,

58, 62–63. See also Group members

The Performance Challenge (Gilley, Boughton,

and Maycunich), 60

Performance measurement: and goal of continuous

improvement, 449, 452, 455; of

group processes, 450–453

Performing stage, group development, 38, 48

Person-centered approaches, facilitator education,

528, 529, 535–536

Person-centered counseling, and meaningcentered

counseling (MCC), 174, 175–176

Personal mastery, 70

Personal preparation, in Eight Ps approach to

preparation, 58, 69–71

Personality: disagreements based on, 365–366;

psychological theories on, 36–37

Personality inventory instruments: DISC

Profile, 37, 39; Four Seasons, 40, 51–53;

Keirsey Temperament Sorter, 39;Myers-

Briggs Type Indicator, 37, 39; True Colors,

40;What Color Is Your Personality?, 40

Personality styles: instruments for determining,

39–40, 51–53; value of understanding,

38–39

Perspective, in Eight Ps approach to preparation,

58–60

Place, in Eight Ps approach to preparation, 58,

64–67. See also Meeting space

PlaceWare, 297

Planning: for dialogue in large group meetings,

338–341; strategic, 195–197. See also

Preparation

Planning team: for large group meetings,

336–337; participant feedback reviewed

by, 342; purpose statement developed by,

337–338

Practical participatory evaluation, 424–425

Practice, in Eight Ps approach to preparation,

58, 68–69

Preparation: in Big Picture approach, 9–10;

flexibility allowed by, 605; personal, in

Eight Ps approach, 58, 69–71; for Start-Up

meetings, 317–320; and trust between facilitator

and group, 93; value of systematic

approach to, 57–58, 71–72; for virtual

meetings, 299–302, 303–304. See also Eight

Ps approach to preparation

Preparing images, visual facilitation, 393–394,

399–406, 418

Problem solving: advantages of meaningcentered

approach to, 179; synectics

process for, 148–151

Problem Solving Units, 479

Problem-purpose expansion technique, 359

Problems: consultation focusing on, 593, 606;

scale of, 481–484

Process: benefiting from graphic facilitation,

161; defined, 36, 67; designing, 67; documenting,

67–68; in Eight Ps approach to

preparation, 58, 67–68; explaining, in

meaning-centered counseling approach,

180–181; giving attention to content and,

580–581; IAF Code of Ethics on, 560, 561;

leadership of, 215. See also Group decision

processes

Process consultation, 593–594

Process Consultation Revisited (Schein), 593

Process guides, facilitators as, 549–550

Process interventions, 484

Process issues: defined, 35–36; difficult behaviors

of group members, 40–46, 175–176;

group culture, 49–50; group development,

46–48; group intelligence, 50–51; group

newcomers, 48–49; personality styles, 38–40;

psychological theories relevant to, 36–38

Production loss, as hindrance to group brainstorming,

105, 109

Products: in Eight Ps approach to preparation,

58, 63–64; facilitator-owned vs. groupowned,

489; with idea-based vs. storybased

facilitation, 486–487; with

instrumental vs. developmental facilitation,

487–488; types of, 485–489; verbal vs.

visual, 486–487

Professional certification: benefits of, 466–467;

cost of, 466; future of, 467–468; IAF

Subject Index 657

procedure for, 464–466; initial IAF program

for, 461–462; number of facilitators

with, 467; types of, held by facilitators, 511

Professional coaching, 510

Professional development, 495–523; by being

thought leaders, 510; from feedback,

506–510; IAF Code of Ethics on, 561; intentional

plan for, 512–513; by learning

from facilitation experiences, 504–506; by

observing others, 502–504; and professional

standing, 511; publications for,

499–501; survey on, 496, 514–523; by

teaching others, 510; training opportunities

for, 496–499; using Internet for,

501–502. See also Facilitator education

Professional organizations, 498–499

Program evaluation: basic format for, 424;

types of, 422–423

Projection, 248, 253–254

Pseudo-solutions, 118–120

Psychological theories: and differentiationintegration

(D/I) theory, 243; and meaning-

centered counseling (MCC), 174–177;

and process issues in facilitation, 36–51;

and Start-Up meetings, 315

Public Conversations Project, 223

Publications, professional, 499–501

Purpose: clarity of, in transparent facilitation,

577–580; in Eight Ps approach to preparation,

58, 60–62; statement of, for large

group meetings, 337–338

Pygmalion in the Classroom (Rosenthal), 598

Q

Quality: achieved in visual facilitation,

381–382, 395–399; importance of, in Big

Picture approach, 14–15

Questions: dialogue, techniques for, 216–218;

focus, 61–62; as tool in facilitation, 10–11

R

Real-Time Strategic Change, 84, 230, 491

Relationships: building, between facilitators

and groups, 31; client, Big Picture approach

to, 7–20; as focus in personcentered

facilitator education, 536; focus

on, vs. on results, 550–551

Resistance, people-based vs. problem-based

view of, 606

Responsiveness, as important to trust between

facilitator and group, 93

Role models: facilitators as, 69, 92, 569; organizational

leaders as, 196–197

Roots of Change (ROC) advisory board,

graphic facilitation use by, 156–159

Ropes courses, as trust-building technique,

100

Rules: for brainstorming, 111, 233; implicit vs.

explicit, 484–485; with interaction method,

144–146; simple, 228, 231–232, 233, 236.

See also Ground rules

S

Satisfaction, evaluating client, 19–20

Scale of problem, 481–484; narrow vs. wide

scope, 482–483; single event vs. long-term

approach, 482; symptomatic vs. causal,

483–484

School discipline policy, case study of

multiple-stakeholder collaboration to

develop, 116–132

Self-actualization, 176

Self-differentiation, 243–244

Self-disclosure. See Transparent facilitation

Self-organization, 227–228

Self-reflection, 505

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

(Covey), 98

Signet Consulting Group, 481

SimuReal, 482

Situational Leadership Model, 534

Skilled Facilitator approach, 21–34; changing

thinking in, 29–31; core values of, 25–26;

diagnosis–intervention cycle process in,

28; emotional skills developed with,

33–34; facilitator’s role in, 24; ground

rules in, 26–27; group effectiveness model

in, 24; intentionality of, 533; key elements

of, 23; low-level inferences in, 28–29;

overview of, 34; process for building facilitator-

group relationship in, 31; as systems

approach, 31–33; usefulness of, in range of

roles, 25

The Skilled Facilitator (Schwarz), 11

658 Subject Index

Skills: emotional, and Skilled Facilitator approach,

33–34; to enhance facilitation,

359–360; facilitation education based on

developing, 530–531; of graphic facilitators,

155–156; increasing collaborative, of

workforce, 198–199; teaching, to group

members, 182. See also Competencies

Small groups, large groups vs., 490–492

Social loafing, as hindrance to group functioning,

104

Society for Human Resource Management,

212, 213

Socrates, 256

Space. See Meeting space

Specialization, misunderstandings fostered

by, 2

Spectra of facilitation, 478–494; and approaches

to design, 479–481; choice of,

474, 494; and organizational reality model

of change, 474–477; and scale of problem,

481–484; and types of audiences, 489–494;

and types of interventions used, 484–485;

and types of products produced, 485–489

SRI International, 160

Stakeholders: defined, 61; identifying, 62–63;

participatory evaluation involving, 424,

433–438. See also Multiple-stakeholder

collaboration

Start-Up meetings, 315–333; benefits of, 333;

conducting, 320–333; consensus decision

making in, 324, 325; creating vision in,

328–329; developing mission statement in,

329–331; drafting work plan in, 331–332;

ending, 332–333; gathering data in,

322–323; ground rules for, 318, 324, 326;

identifying interests in, 326–328; objectives

of, 316; preparing for, 317–320; terms used

in, 316–317; theoretical context of, 315

Statement of values. See International Association

of Facilitators (IAF), Statement of

Values and Code of Ethics for Group

Facilitators

Stories: facilitation methods based on,

486–487; as trust-building technique,

98–99. See also Participatory evaluation

through stories of change

Storming stage, group development, 37, 46, 47.

See also Groan Zone

Strategic Forum, 482

Strategic planning, as prerequisite for cultural

change effort, 195–197

Strengths and weaknesses technique, consensus

decision making, 374–376

Study Circles Resource Center, 212, 223

Subgroups: cross-cultural, 259; and differentiation-

integration (DI) theory, 243, 248–252

Summary images, visual facilitation,

394–395, 418

Summative evaluations, 422

Survey, on professional development, 496,

514–523

Synectics, procedural communication analysis

of, 148–151

Systemic change, of organizations, 192, 194

Systems: complex adaptive, 227–230; facilitating

whole, 241–254; as focus of Skilled

Facilitator approach, 31–33; groups as, 38

T

Task force on human rights, unsuccessful

functioning of, 172–174

Team leaders, 316

Team sponsors, 316

Team Start-Up meetings. See Start-Up

meetings

Teamness, 317

Teams: defined, 315; importance of trust in

building, 95; as tension filled, 567; virtual

(VTs), 296–297. See also Planning team

Technical approaches, facilitator education,

528, 529, 530–531, 533

Technology: electronic, to support meetings,

84–85, 108–109; for virtual meetings, 297,

298, 300, 307–309

Technology of Participation (ToP) Group

Facilitation Methods, 479, 480, 487, 490,

491, 556; Action Planning, 483, 492;

Environmental Analysis, 483; resources for

learning, 61

Theories. See Psychological theories

Thinking: about clients, in Big Picture approach,

16–17; changing, in Skilled Facilitator

approach, 29–31; critical, by facilitator

leading dialogue, 216; divergent vs. convergent,

122; styles of, 15

Tool rule, interaction method, 145–146

Subject Index 659

Topola Rural Development Program (TRDP)

(Serbia), 430, 433–435, 436, 445–448

Training: adventure, 100; competency-based,

531; to increase collaborative skills of

workforce, 198–199. See also Facilitator

education; Professional development

Transactional analysis, applied to individual

problem behavior in group, 45–46

Transformative participatory evaluation,

425–426

Transparent facilitation, 573–589; benefits of,

573; conditions necessary for success of,

577–583; defined, 573; level of transparency

in, 589; neutrality and, 574–577;

nonviolent communication (NVC) as tool

for, 573–574, 577, 583; techniques for use

in, 583–589

True Colors (personality inventory instrument),

40

Trust, 89–101; and emotional bank account,

98; and empowerment, 97; between facilitator

and client, 12, 91–92; between facilitator

and group, 92–94; IAF Code of Ethics on,

551, 560; importance of, 89–91, 101; level

of, in organizations, 96–97; measuring,

95–96; techniques for building, 12, 98–101;

within and between groups, 94–95

U

Uncertainty principle, 599

Understanding: client needs in Big Picture

approach, 17–18; mutual, for multiplestakeholder

collaboration, 117, 126–128,

132, 133; personality styles, 38–39

Unilateral control model, 30

U.S. Department of Commerce, 59, 61, 67

Utilization evaluation, 423

V

Values: core, of International Association of

Facilitators, 546; and development of IAF

Statement of Values, 551–552; disagreements

based on, 361, 363–365; facilitators

as role models of, 92; of Skilled Facilitator

approach, 25–26. See also International

Association of Facilitators (IAF), Statement

of Values and Code of Ethics for

Group Facilitators

Verbal facilitation, visual facilitation vs.,

389–391

Verge, 232

Videoconferencing, 309, 310

Violent agreements, 363, 374

Virtual meetings, 295–311; brainstorming in,

108–109; checklist for, 301–302; cofacilitation

of, 302, 304–305, 309; conducting,

302, 304–309; documenting, 309, 311; examples

of, 298; and IAF Code of Ethics,

555–556; as opportunity for virtual

facilitators, 298–299, 311; organizational

context for, 295–297; preparing for,

299–302, 303–304; technology for, 297,

298, 300, 307–309; videoconferencing for,

309, 310

Virtual networks, 295–296

Virtual teams (VTs), 296–297

Vision, in Start-Up meetings, 328–329

Visual facilitation, 381–419; business

context for, 386–388; case studies of,

399–414; defined, 382, 419; future of,

416; and history of visual techniques,

383–385; how to learn, 414–415; methods

of working with images in, 392–395;

overview of, 383; products of, 486; quality

achieved in, 381–382, 395–399; resources

on, 419; terms used in, 417–419; verbal

facilitation vs., 389–391. See also

Graphic facilitation

Visual language: benefits of, 388, 389; defined,

385, 419; history of use of, 385

Visual thinking style, 15

Visualizers, 391, 419

Visuelle Protokolle, 381, 486

W

Weighted score technique, consensus decision

making, 379

Werkgroep Docenten Onderwijszaken, 488

Western Justice Center, 223

What Color Is Your Personality? (personality

inventory instrument), 40

“Who else?” question, 249–252

Whole System Approach, 482

Wilson Learning Company, 15–16

Winning Through Participation (Spencer),

61

660 Subject Index

Work plan, in Start-Up meetings, 331–332

Work product, in Eight Ps approach to preparation,

58, 63–64

Workshops: dialogues vs., 488; diversity

checklist for designing, 257–259. See also

Meetings

World Café Community Foundation, 231

World Café process, 161, 231, 235–236

World Vision, leadership education program,

98

Y

“Yes . . . and” principle, 284–286

Z

Zenergy co-operacy approach, 557

661

H O W T O U S E T H E C D - R O M

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

PC with Microsoft Windows 98SE or later

Mac with Apple OS version 8.6 or later

USING THE CD WITH WINDOWS

To view the items located on the CD, follow these steps:

1. Insert the CD into your computer’s CD-ROM drive.

2. A window appears with the following options:

Contents: Allows you to view the files included on the CD-ROM.

Software: Allows you to install useful software from the CD-ROM.

Links: Displays a hyperlinked page of websites.

Author: Displays a page with information about the Author(s).

Contact Us: Displays a page with information on contacting the publisher

or author.

Help: Displays a page with information on using the CD.

Exit: Closes the interface window.

If you do not have autorun enabled, or if the autorun window does not appear,

follow these steps to access the CD:

1. Click Start Run.

2. In the dialog box that appears, type d:<\\>start.exe, where d is the letter of

your CD-ROM drive. This brings up the autorun window described in the

preceding set of steps.

3. Choose the desired option from the menu. (See Step 2 in the preceding list

for a description of these options.)

IN CASE OF TROUBLE

If you experience difficulty using the CD-ROM, please follow these steps:

1. Make sure your hardware and systems configurations conform to the systems

requirements noted under “System Requirements” above.

2. Review the installation procedure for your type of hardware and operating

system.

It is possible to reinstall the software if necessary.

To speak with someone in Product Technical Support, call 800–762–2974

or 317–572–3994 M–F 8:30 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. EST. You can also get support and

contact Product Technical Support through our website at www.wiley.com/

techsupport.

Before calling or writing, please have the following information available:

• Type of computer and operating system

• Any error messages displayed

• Complete description of the problem

It is best if you are sitting at your computer when making the call.

All material copyright © 2005 by the International Association of Facilitators (IAF) except:

CHAPTER ONE The Big Picture: Creating an Ongoing Client Relationship, copyright © 2005 by Nadine

Bell and Susan Nurre. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWO The Skilled Facilitator Approach, copyright © 2005 by Roger Schwarz. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER THREE Facilitation: Beyond Methods, copyright © 2005 by David Wayne. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER FOUR Eight Ps of Effective Facilitation Planning and Preparation, copyright © 2005 by Jeff

Bracken. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER FIVE The Architecture of Participation, copyright © 2005 by Patricia Tuecke. All rights

reserved.

CHAPTER SIX Building Trust: The Great Enabler, copyright © 2005 by Maria Begoña Rodas-Meeker and

Larry Meeker. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER SEVEN Facilitation of Group Brainstorming, copyright © 2005 by Paul B. Paulus and Toshihiko

Nakui. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER EIGHT Promoting Mutual Understanding for Effective Collaboration in Cross-Functional

Groups with Multiple Stakeholders, copyright © 2005 by Sam Kaner. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER NINE A Procedural Analysis of Group Facilitation: A Communication Perspective, copyright

© 2005 by Joe Chilberg. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TEN Graphic Facilitation: The Art of Drawing Out the Best in People, copyright © 2005 by

David Sibbet. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER ELEVEN Creating a Positive Participatory Climate: A Meaning-Centered Counseling Perspective,

copyright © 2005 by Paul T. P.Wong. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWELVE How to Build a Collaborative Environment, copyright © 2005 by David Straus. All

rights reserved.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN Effective Strategies for Designing and Facilitating Dialogue, copyright © 2005 by

Steven N. Pyser. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN Dynamic Facilitation: Design Principles from the New Science of Complexity,

copyright © 2005 by Lisa Kimball, Trish Silber, and Nedra Weinstein. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN Facilitating the Whole System in the Room: A Theory, Philosophy, and Practice for

Managing Conflicting Agendas, Diverse Needs, and Polarized Views, copyright © 2005 by Sandra Janoff

and Marvin Weisbord. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN Successfully Facilitating Multicultural Groups, copyright © 2005 by Christine Hogan.

All rights reserved.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Improvisation in Facilitation, copyright © 2005 by Izzy Gesell. All rights

reserved.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN Facilitation of the Future: How Virtual Meetings Are Changing the Work of the

Facilitator, copyright © 2005 by Lori Bradley and Michael Beyerlein. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER NINETEEN The Team Start-Up: A Scripted Approach to Facilitating the Start of an Effective

Work Team, copyright © 2005 by Fred Niziol and Kathy Free. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY Facilitating Large Group Meetings That Get Results Every Time, copyright © 2005

by Sylvia James,Mary Eggers,Marsha Hughes-Rease, Roland Loup, and Bev Seiford. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE Facilitating Communication in Group Decision-Making Discussions, copyright

© 2005 by Dennis S. Gouran and Randy Y. Hirokawa. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO Consensus Building: Strategies for Resolving Disagreement, copyright © 2005

by Michael Wilkinson. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE Quality Without a Name, copyright © 2005 by Reinhard Kuchenmüller

and Marianne Stifel. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR Facilitating Participatory Evaluation Through Stories of Change, copyright

© 2005 by Terry D. Bergdall. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE Assessing the Effectiveness of Group Decision Processes, copyright © 2005

by John Rohrbaugh. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX Facilitator Core Competencies as Defined by the International Association of

Facilitators, copyright © 2005 by Lynda Lieberman Baker and Cameron Fraser. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-SEVEN Operational Dimensions of the Profession of Facilitation, copyright © 2005

by Jon C. Jenkins. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-EIGHT How to Build Your Expertise in Facilitation, copyright © 2005 by Kristin J.

Arnold. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-NINE Dimensions of Facilitator Education, copyright © 2005 by Glyn Thomas. All

rights reserved.

CHAPTER THIRTY Facilitator Values and Ethics, copyright © 2005 by Dale Hunter and Stephen Thorpe.

All rights reserved.

CHAPTER THIRTY-ONE Facilitation from the Inside Out, copyright © 2005 by John Epps. All rights

reserved.

CHAPTER THIRTY-TWO The Gift of Self: The Art of Transparent Facilitation, copyright © 2005 by Miki

Kashtan. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER THIRTY-THREE Affirmative Facilitation: An Asset-Based Approach to Process Consultation,

copyright © 2005 by James P. Troxel. All rights reserved.