A New Computer Supported Society is Emerging

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 
119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 
153 154 155 156 

A digital layer on top of our traditional society is emerging, i.e., a digital layer

to the extent that modern information technology is used almost everywhere in

today’s society to support all various kinds of new technology-enabled human

activities not possible to perform without the technology. Some researchers in

the field have characterized the relation between these human activities and the

enabling technologies in terms of IT dependencies where new human actions

couldn’t have been realized without the new technology (e.g., Nordstrom,

2003). One simple example of technology that has fast become widespread

and adopted broadly over the whole human population is the mobile phone.

With this small device a person can interact with somebody else independent

of the geographic distance between them, and independent of their respective

Introduction 3

Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written

permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited.

locations. Clearly this kind of new interaction device enables us to interact in

new ways, and we would have some difficulties living without them today.

Before moving forward any farther, the very concept of “interaction” might

need some clarification. Below I will therefore try to define this term in relation

to the concepts of communication and collaboration.

The concepts of interaction and interaction support can be defined in relation

to the concepts of communication and collaboration (Ljungberg, 1999).

According to Dix & Beale (1996), communication is the exchange of information

between people, e.g., video conferencing. Collaboration is when two or

more people are operating a common object (or artifact), e.g., co-operative

authoring where the shared document is the common object. In collaboration,

operations produce “feedback” to the operator, but also “feed through” to coworkers.

Support for collaboration is sometimes combined with support for

communication, e.g., a collaborative authoring system (collaboration) equipped

with a chat feature (communication). In the context of this model, communication

and collaboration can be conceived as subsets of “interaction.” As

suggested by Ljungberg (1999) we can use “CSCW technologies” to frame the

technological support for interaction, i.e., communication technologies and

collaboration technologies (see Figure 1).

According to Figure 1, mobile interaction, which is a major component of the

Interaction Society, can thus be defined as communication and collaboration

around a shared object in a mobile use context, e.g., talking with somebody

over a mobile phone while walking around on the deck on a big ship.

Figure 1. Definition of interaction and interaction support and how it

relates to the concepts of communication and collaboration (Ljungberg,

1999; based on Dix & Beale, 1996)

Communication

(Communication

technologies)

Collaboration

(Collaboration

technologies)

Interaction

(CSCW technologies)

4 Wiberg

Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written

permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited.