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The Nature of Design

THE

NATURE

of DESIGN

Ecology, Culture, and Human Intention

David W. Orr

2002

Oxford New York

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and an associated company in Berlin

Copyright © 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.

198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016

www.oup.com

Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,

without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Orr, David W., 1944–.

The nature of design : ecology, culture, and human intention / by David W. Orr.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references (p. ).

ISBN 0-19-514855-X

1. Nature—Effect of human beings on.

2. Human ecology—Moral and ethical aspects.

3. Environmental responsibility.

4. Global environmental change.

I. Title.

GF75 .O77 2002

304.2'8—dc21 2001036413

We gratefully acknowledge permission from Blackwell Science, Ltd., to reprint

in this book, in somewhat altered form, material from the following articles by

David W. Orr that were originally published in Conservation Biology: “Technological

Fundamentalism” (8:2, June 1994); “Twine in the Baler” (8:4, December 1994);

“Conservatism and Conservation” (9:2, April 1995); “None So Blind” (9:5, October

1995); “Slow Knowledge” (10:3, June 1996); “Architecture as Pedagogy II” (11:3,

June 1997); “Speed” (12:1, February 1998); “The Limits of Nature and the Nature

of Limits” (12:4; August 1998); “The Architecture of Science” (13:2, April 1999);

“Verbicide” (13:4, August 1999); “Education, Careers, Callings” (13:6, December

1999); “2020: A Proposal” (14:2, April 2000); “Ideasclerosis I” (14:4, August 2000);

Ideasclerosis II” (14:6, December 2000).

Printed in the United States of America

on recycled, acid-free paper

For Wil