APPENDIX 2

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 
119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 

EXTRACTS FROM THE TRANSCRIPT OF A GRID SESSION

This grid is the kind you’d produce when doing Exercise 3.1. It’s provided

here in order to:

(a) give you a point of comparison when doing your own first grid

(b) provide material for Exercise 4.1.

The grid is presented bit by bit, as the constructs are elicited. The

interviewER’s and the InterviewEE’s utterances are labelled ‘ER’ and ‘EE’,

respectively.

Topic: My Friends

Elements: eight named friends, represented here by their initials. It has

been suggested to EE that he include a range of friendships, from close,

through ‘just acquainted, so-so’, to include one person he doesn’t

particularly like.

ER: Okay, so we have eight people you know, friends of yours to a smaller or

greater degree. Now, I want you to let me know what you think about them –

how you see them and perhaps what feelings you have towards them.

Anything, really, that you think is relevant if I want to understand how you

view your friends.

EE: Well, that’s a lot, really. I mean, some are new and some are old, four, no,

five of them are males, AB has red hair, how do you? . . . and then this one . . .

ER: Okay, whoa, hold on a bit! That’s great, er, let’s find things out bit by bit,

and think it through systematically. Actually, a good way of doing that is to

compare them in threes. Now, if I were to say to you: (person) AB: CD: GH:

which two of these people are alike in some way, and different from the third,

in terms of how you think of them as friends?

EE: I find this a bit confusing. AB and CD don’t see a lot of each other . . . er,

but, they’d be more likely to meet when GH is around, since CD and GH are

sharing a house with some other people and . . . not sure what you mean.

ER: Well, think of them as the separate people they are. Now, as individuals, is

there a characteristic which, say, AB and CD have which GH doesn’t? Or some

characteristic which has AB and GH as alike, with CD being different? Forget

about whether they’re house-sharing, for the time being. As individuals, AB,

CD, and GH?

EE: Well, AB and CD are both a bit reserved; GH isn’t. On the other hand, CD

and GH are very good at sports but AB isn’t at all sporty. Is that what you

mean? Then there’s when I first met them . . .

ER: Yes, that’s just the sort of thing I mean. Hold on while I get the first one

down.

[ AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST _

Reserved

ER: So AB and CD are alike because they’re reserved, whereas, in contrast, GH

is . . . ?

EE: Oh, I’d say she’s outgoing, you know, friendly and approachable.

[ AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST _

Reserved [ [ _ Friendly and

approachable

ER: Now, can you tell me in what way they’re reserved? I mean, what would I

notice about them that I wouldn’t about GH?

EE: It’s not that they’re shy – well, I suppose CD is a bit shy; no, it’s about how

‘forward’ they are. If you met them for the first time at a party they’d sort of

wait until you introduced them; GH, well, she’d be across the room shaking

hands straightaway!

ER: So if I have this as [writes in and shows EE]:

[ AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST _

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[ [ Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

EE: Yes, that’s right.

ER: Now, suppose that what we have here is a rating scale. A 5-point scale.

The words I have on the left, ‘reserved, hold back’, is the ‘1’ end of the scale,

and the words on the right, ‘outgoing, will approach’, are the ‘5’ end of the

scale. I want you to rate each of these three people on this scale. Give each of

them a number, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, to say which end of the scale they’re nearest to.

So: how would you rate AB?

EE: Well, I’ve said, rather reserved; give him a ‘4’ and CD a ‘5’ cos he’s more

reserved?

ER: Okay, I know this may seem a bit awkward, but the scale goes from

‘reserved equals ‘‘1’’ to ‘outgoing equals ‘‘5’’ ’. Forget which one’s ‘bigger’ or

‘has more of’; it’s the direction, nearer to the left or nearer to the right, that we

want. The words on the left [shows grid] stand for the ‘1’ end of the scale – if

someone is very reserved, they’d get a ‘1’; a bit reserved would be a ‘2’; not at

all reserved, but in fact very outgoing, would be a ‘5’, d’you see?

EE: Right, if that’s what you want, then CD gets a ‘1’ and AB gets a ‘2’,

reserved, but not as much as CD.

ER: And in contrast, GH?

EE; Oh, yes, definitely very outgoing; give her a ‘5’.

1 [ AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5 _

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 5_ Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

ER: And what about the others? How would you rate KL on this scale?

EE: Ah. Well, pretty outgoing, really. A ‘5’, maybe a ‘4’?

ER: Is he as outgoing as GH or less so?

EE: Oh, I’d say less – a ‘4’.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 5 4 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

ER: And MN?

EE: More like AB, really; a ‘2’ I’d say.

ER: What about OP?

EE: Oh. Well, I’ve got a problem here. Have you a ‘10’ on the scale?! OP is very

forward, much more so than GH!

ER: No, but we can give him a ‘5’, that’s the most outgoing . . .

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 5 4 2 5 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

ER: . . . but we may have to move GH along a bit; she’s less outgoing than OP,

so give her a ‘4’?

EE: I see what you mean. Yes, okay, a ‘4’ for GH, and then OP is a ‘5’. But KL is

less outgoing than either of them – change it to a ‘3’?

ER: Yes, that sounds okay, if that sums up how you see them in terms of

reserved versus outgoing. Here we are [shows]:

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

EE: That’s fine. On that basis, QR is a ‘3’ as well. ST, now, she’s different. More

like AB, really.

ER: Reserved, but not as reserved as CD?

EE: Yes, that’s right. A ‘2’.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

ER: Good! That’s your first construct – one way you have of thinking about

your friends and friendship. You said something earlier about being sporty? Is

that something you have in mind when you think about friends?

EE: Yes, I enjoy being fit myself, and though not all my friends are interested, I

do tend to notice how healthy or otherwise they are!

ER: So is this about being fit and healthy, or being interested in sports?

EE: Well, I suppose it’s to do with how they feel about keeping fit. I mean, you

can be a couch potato who watches football on TV, you could call that ‘sporty’,

but it’s not what I have in mind. Yes, look, that’s what it is: whether you get a

buzz off them; or whether, sure, they care to stay alive but they’re

just . . . amiable, maybe, but slobs!

ER: What if we were to say ‘care about their health’ as opposed to ‘health

doesn’t matter to them’?

EE: Not really, everyone cares about their health! No, it’s more to do with

making an effort to be fit and healthy.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy

ER: As opposed to?

EE: As opposed to not being particularly bothered.

ER: How would you tell?

EE: Oh, you know, activity: goes for a swim, makes an effort, joined a gym,

you could say the sort of person who’d have their own personal trainer if they

could afford it.

ER: And the opposite?

EE: It’s definitely to do with not making any special effort to look after himself.

Or herself.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

ER: So there we have it [shows grid]. A new rating scale: ‘makes an effort’

(with all the other things that we’ve said about making an effort) is the ‘1’ end

of the scale; ‘makes no special effort’ is the ‘5’ end of the scale. How would you

rate AB?

EE: Oh, not particularly sporty; I’d say a ‘4’, not especially interested.

CD’s into being fit, and GH, yes, she’s pretty much a fitness freak, even

more so.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

ER: There you are, And the others, going along the row?

EE: Ah, KL! He’s the couch potato’s couch potato! MN, yes, she’s healthy and

talks about it a lot; she’s into alternative medicine too. OP, neither, really; I’d

give her a ‘3’. It’s just not an issue with her; she says she’s happy enough to

rest on her laurels now that she’s given up smoking! QR, yes, another slob,

though not as gross as KL. That leaves ST, who’s moderately interested. A ‘2’?

No, that would be like CD; better say ‘3’.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

EE: Looking over the ratings, it looks like all the blokes are slobs, yeah! . . . no,

that’s not true, CD isn’t. Does their sex matter? Should we put that in or is it a

bit trivial?

ER: Well, we’re talking about your friendships here, and how you think about

them. Is their sex relevant to you? You tell me!

EE: GH is my girlfriend. Well, I’m not especially a ‘man’s man’, I enjoy getting

on with either! No, leave it out.

ER: All right, so we look for another construct, another way in which you think

of friends and friendship. Suppose I ask you to think about KL, MN, and OP.

Which two of these are alike, in some way to do with friendship, and thereby

different from the third?

EE: KL’s a slob, no, we’ve said that . . . oh, okay. KL worries what you think

about him; the other two don’t. Well, not that he worries, but other people’s

opinions matter to him. MN and OP are more independent, don’t need to rely

on other people so much.

ER: Hm. You were saying earlier that OP is ‘very forward’, like GH?

EE; Yes, she likes other people, but she doesn’t need other people. MN’s the

same. KL reminds me of that psychological test, what was it? Gave you a score

on whether you were ‘group-dependent, a sound follower’ . . . ? Which makes

me wonder: what if my way of thinking is just, you know, wrong, not as an

expert on people would see it?

ER: [refusing to be drawn] Oh, well, never mind about all those psychologists

– it’s your constructs we’re interested in. So, you’re saying that MN and OP are

alike because they’re independent and don’t rely on being part of a group,

whereas KL needs to be ‘of’ a group, as well as in it, as it were?

EE: Yes, that puts it rather well; give him ‘1’. He’s more of a conformist really;

they’re more self-sufficient, both the same: give them a . . . Sorry, which way

round is it?

ER: [shows the grid] Independent is a ‘1’ and conformist is a ‘5’.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent, selfsufficient

1 2 2 5 [1 [1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a

group as well as ‘in’ a

group

ER: And the others?

EE: This is an easy one. AB and CD are both independent types, 1 and 2; GH

comes alive when she’s with other people but no, I wouldn’t say she’s clingy –

give her a 2. That leaves QR – he’s sort of half-way – and ST. She’s fairly

groupy, give her a ‘4’, I think.

ER: Now here’s another comparison. AB, QR, and ST.

EE: Let’s see now. QR and ST are alike because . . .AB is reserved and their

own person, while they’re . . . This is difficult, I’m stuck on the other constructs

with these three people . . .

ER: Is there a way that QR and AB are alike as opposed to ST?

EE: No. I just can’t see anything.

ER: That’s all right. Try comparing these three: GH, MN, and ST.

EE: GH and MN are . . . no, I was going to say single children, and ST is part of

a large family. Is that the same as being independent as distinct from groupdependent,

I wonder?

ER: You tell me!

EE: Well, it’s not true about KL: he’s a single child, but group-dependent. This

isn’t exactly the same as the previous one, really.

ER: And it’ll be very interesting to see how far you do see the two

characteristics (independent/only child, group-dependent/from a large

family) as similar – we can measure that in the analysis. Go ahead. ‘No

other brothers or sisters’ is the ‘1’ end of the scale; ‘many brothers and sisters’

is the ‘5’ end of the scale. The more siblings, the larger the rating.

EE: GH and MN are only children, so is KL; ST, in contrast, has three older

brothers, poor girl; and OP has two brothers and two sisters! What does that

look like on your sheet?

ER: [shows]. Not quite the same ratings. What about AB and CD?

EE: No, not really. AB has a sister, CD has two, QR is one of a pair of twins –

give her a ‘2’, the same as ‘AB’. Is that all of them now?

ER: Yes, that’s right.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent, selfsufficient

1 2 2 5 [1 [1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a

group as well as ‘in’ a

group

No siblings 2 3 [1 [1 1 5 2 4 Many siblings

EE: Now, what would you say about AB, KL, and ST? Which two of these are

similar, but different from the third, in terms of friendship as you think of

friendship?

ER: Oh, in terms of sheer liking them. AB and ST are my best friends, apart

from my girlfriend GH. KL I don’t particularly get on with.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Make no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent, selfsufficient

1 2 2 5 [1 [1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a

group as well as ‘in’

a group

No siblings 2 3 [1 [1 1 5 2 4 Many siblings

Best friends [ [Don’t get on with

EE: I’ll scribble that down for the moment; but could you say a bit more about

them? What do you look for in a best friend as distinct from someone who you

don’t particularly get on with?

ER: Lots, really. They don’t have to think like me, but we have to be on the

same wavelength; then they have to be easy to be with, you know, a good

laugh. And for me, being from the same background helps. I know it

shouldn’t, but can I put it down?

EE: By all means! This is about what you think, not what you should think. I

appreciate your honesty.

ER: [Laughs] And that’s another thing. I look for honesty from my friends.

Reliability, someone you can depend on.

EE: Okay. Now, look, what I’d like to do at this stage is to flag up ‘best friends’

versus ‘don’t get on with’, since that summarises the purpose of the whole

grid; and then quickly tease out the other characteristics you’ve just

mentioned. We’ll leave ‘best friends’ just like that, and view the whole of

the grid as defining what that particular construct means for you.

EE: Well, these were all a bit ‘top-of-my-head’, you know; shouldn’t I do the

three-at-a-time bit – make sure I’m doing it properly?

ER: Oh, no: the ‘three-at-a-time’ bit is just to get you to come up with fresh

constructs each time; if you can spin out a set just like that without the ‘threeat-

a-time’ routine, that’s fine! And when you start rating each of the friends,

I’ll make sure that you think it through so it’s not just off the top of your head!

Now, here’s what you’ve just said [scribbles quickly, and shows]:

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent, selfsufficient

1 2 2 5 [1 [1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a

group as well as ‘in’

a group

No siblings 2 3 [1 [1 1 5 2 4 Many siblings

Best friends

BEST FRIENDS

[ [Don’t get on with

DON’T GET ON WITH

On the same

wavelength

Easy/a good laugh

Same background as

myself

Honest, reliable,

dependable

ER: Now before we do anything else, you need to tell me whether I’ve

understood you. ‘On the same wavelength’: you said that that isn’t how

similarly you think . . .

EE: No, it’s more to do with reacting the same way, seeing the funny side at

the same time; how predictable they are, really, in their reactions.

ER: And easy to be with? Just that, as distinct from minding your ps and qs

with them?

EE: Exactly. That leaves ‘same background’. Well, you know, parents being

similar people, same sort of schools, all that. Can you just say, ‘I know what

you mean’, and leave it at that?

ER: Yes, of course, if that’s your preference. But what about ‘honest, reliable,

dependable’? One in particular, or are they all the same? What single word or

idea would you put down as the opposite?

EE: I was going to say ‘predictable – unpredictable’, but I’ve already said that.

All right, let’s say open and emotionally honest, as distinct from secretive,

pulling the wool over your eyes as far as feelings are concerned.

ER: That’s fine. Now let’s do the ratings on each of these constructs, one by

one. Leave the overall ‘best friends’ one for the moment. [Fills in the ratings as

EE calls them out.]

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent, selfsufficient

1 2 2 5 1 1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a group

as well as ‘in’ a group

No siblings 2 3 1 1 1 5 2 4 Many siblings

Best friends BEST

FRIENDS

[ [ Don’t get on with

DON’T GET ON WITH

On the same

wavelength, react

similarly, more

predictable ___

1 3 1 5 4 1 3 2 More difficult to

predict ___

Easy/a good laugh 2 5 1 4 4 1 3 2 Have to be careful

round them

Same background as

myself ____

1 2 2 5 4 2 4 3 Different background

____

Honest, reliable,

dependable Open and

emotionally honest __

1 3 1 5 3 2 3 2 Secretive, pull the

wool over your eyes

re feelings __

ER: Now then. Let’s get a little distance for moment. Try another triplet, and

remember, a new construct: something unrelated as far as possible to the ones

we’ve already talked about. Try AB, ST, and MN.

EE: It’s very difficult to avoid repeating myself. I don’t have a very varied way

of thinking, do I? It’s all the same!

ER: Well, actually, you’re not doing too badly. It’s extraordinary, really, how

very well, thank you, we manage to do with relatively few really different

ways of looking at the world! Now, does anything occur?

EE: No . . . oh well, I suppose there’s education: AB and MN had a very good

schooling, conventionally, while ST wasn’t ‘academic’, left school early, and

has had a tough time of it. And before you ask, by ‘good schooling’ I mean

something like the old grammar schools, as distinct from a big, inner-city

comprehensive.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent,

self-sufficient

1 2 2 5 [1 [1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a group

as well as ‘in’ a group

No siblings 2 3 [1 [1 1 5 2 4 Many siblings

Best friends BEST

FRIENDS

[ [ Don’t get on with

DON’T GET ON WITH

On the same

wavelength, react

similarly, more

predictable ___

1 3 1 5 4 1 3 2 More difficult to

predict ___

Easy/a good laugh 2 5 1 4 4 1 3 2 Have to be careful

round them

Same background as

myself

1 2 2 5 4 2 4 3 Different background

Honest, reliable,

dependable Open and

emotionally honest

1 3 1 5 3 2 3 2 Secretive, pull the

wool over your eyes

re feelings

Good schooling, like

an old grammar school

[1 3 1 2 [1 4 2 5 Weaker schooling: big,

inner-city comp.

ER: That’s fine. And the ratings? [fills them in as EE reports them.] This has been

a very detailed session and we’ve both worked very hard! Finally, my usual

catch-all question. Working with friends, three at a time mostly, is a very

effective way of identifying people’s constructs, but it is an unusual way of

talking about friendships, and I’d hate to have the technique get in the way of the

meaning! And so, let me ask you: looking at these people as a group, is there any

construct that is crying out for expression but hasn’t yet had an opportunity to be

spoken, because the way we were going about it got in its way?

EE: No. Looking at them carefully, I have to say . . . nothing else occurs to me.

ER: That’s fine. And now, just one last thing. I’m going to cover over the

ratings, and ask you to make an overall assessment of these eight people.

Overall, summarising it all, and as a general feeling: how would you rate each

of them on a scale that goes from ‘best friends’ = ‘1’, to ‘don’t get on

with’ = ‘5’? . . . Many thanks!

The final grid is shown below.

1 AB CD GH KL MN OP QR ST 5

Reserved, hold back

till they’re introduced

[2 [1 4 3 2 5 3 2 Friendly and

approachable

Outgoing, will

approach others first

Makes an effort to be

fit and healthy: active;

swim, gym (personal

trainer type!)

4 2 1 5 1 3 4 3 Makes no special

effort to look after

themselves

Independent, selfsufficient

1 2 2 5 [1 [1 3 4 A conformist, groupdependent,

‘of’ a

group as well as ‘in’

a group

No siblings 2 3 [1 [1 1 5 2 4 Many siblings

Best friends BEST

FRIENDS

[ [ Don’t get on with

DON’T GET ON

WITH

On the same wavelength,

react similarly,

more predictable ___

1 3 1 5 4 1 3 2 More difficult to

predict ___

Easy/a good laugh 2 5 1 4 4 1 3 2 Have to be careful

round them

Same background as

myself

1 2 2 5 4 2 4 3 Different background

Honest, reliable,

dependable Open and

emotionally honest

1 3 1 5 3 2 3 2 Secretive, pull the

wool over your eyes

re feelings

Good schooling, like

an old grammar school

[1 3 1 2 [1 4 2 5 Weaker schooling:

inner-city comp.

BEST FRIENDS 1 2 1 5 4 1 3 2 DON’T GET ON

WITH