INDEX OF NAMES AND FIRST-NAMED AUTHORS

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Adams-Webber, J., 50

Bell, R., 95

Berger, P.L., 76, 91

Boose, J.H., 99

Brown, L.D., 28

Burleson, B.R., 73

Burr, V., 21

Caputi, P., 53, 235

Chiari, G., 234

Cohen, J., 163

Collett, P., 57

Cook, M., 198

Cromwell, R., 57

Cronbach, L.J., 198

Davis, H., 60

Duck, S., 59, 168

Eden, C., 214

Edmonds, T., 209

Epting, F.R., 61

Feixas, G., 167

Fonda, N., 209, 215

Fransella, F., xx, 1, 6, 35, 68, 74, 186, 220

Gaines, B., 21

Greenaway, R., 219

Harreґ, R., 44

Hellriegel, D., 204

Hill, R.A., 150, 180

Hinkle, D.N., 10, 186

Hisrich, R.D., 114, 168, 169

Holsti, O.R., 148

Honey, P., 169, 170, 182, 249, 287

Horley, J., 208

Humphreys, P., 99

Hunt, D.E., 221

Jankowicz, A.D., xx, 4, 16, 39, 67, 70, 77,

92, 99, 112, 114, 119, 141, 152, 167,

204, 209, 214, 216

Jones, H., 40, 46

Kaczmarek, P., 32

Kelly, G.A., 10, 11, 15, 21, 28, 32, 46, 59, 63,

69, 70, 187, 216, 219, 231, 277

Kolb, D., 219

Landfield, A.W., 57, 68, 73, 167

Leitner, L.M., 59

MacMillan, I., 168

Mair, M., 59

Neimeyer, G.J., xx, 59

Neimeyer, R.A., xx

Neuendorf, K.A., 148

Nevill, D.D., 194

O’Cinneide, B., 51

Perrault, W.D., 163

Pervin, L., 15

Pexton, M., xxi

Ravenette, T., xx

Riemann, R., 186

Russ-Eft, D., 198

Salmon, P., 53

Saussure, F. de, 62

Scheer, J., 95, 144, 234

Selltiz, C.S., 147

Sewell, K.W., 95

Shaw, M.L.G., 144

Stewart, V., xx, 51, 225

Thomas, L.F., 3, 221

Tyebjee, T.T., 168

Viney, L.L., 168

Walker, B., 234

Watson, W., 164, 165

Whitehead, J., 221

Winter, D., 50, 83, 98, 168, 186, 208, 209,

215, 219

302 INDEX OF NAMES AND FIRST-NAMED AUTHORS

SUBJECT INDEX

Page references in bold refer to figures and tables.

‘Ex’ indicates that the entry preceding is part of an exercise

Analysis

causal relationships between

constructs, 113

communicating results, 76–77, 133,

137

construct characterisation, 72, 82–89,

89, 90–91, 212

eyeball, 72, 80–82, 90–91 Ex, 94, 96, 104,

105, 118, 119, 121, 132, 212, 222

eyeball, in Simple Partnering

technique, 224

of Ideal elements, 98–99

procedure for Exchange Grid, 230, 233

Ex

procedure for Messy Change Grid,

216–221

procedure for relationship between

constructs, 113–118

procedure for relationship between

elements, 96–103

procedure for Simple Change Grid, 212,

230, 232 Ex, 255–256

process see Process analysis

of relationships between constructs, 73,

112, 118

of relationships between elements, 73,

118, 139 Ex, 139

of Self elements, 98

of single grids, 71–72

standard construct classification

schemes, 88–89, 166–169

of supplied constructs, 56, 113–114

of supplied elements, 98–99

Analysis technique, choice of, 76

Applications

360 degree feedback, 100

assessing teaching practice, 36

bank commercial lending, 114

classroom exercises, 78

clinical, 76, 209, 215

competency frameworks, 36 (see also

Applications, performance

appraisal)

counselling and guidance, 36, 46, 58, 77,

89, 96, 98, 112, 209, 214–215, 222

(see also Applications, personal

change and development)

counsellor outreach programmes, 32,

172

creative block in artists, 172

customer awareness, 147, 152–153

decision-making, 112, 119, 142, 143

educational research, 186

expert system design, 99

fraud and security construal in Benefits

Agency, 152, 153, 154, 172

friendship formation, 171, 172, 204–206

Ex

gender studies, 86

general list of, 8, 9

human resource management, 39

instructor effectiveness, 12, 35, 78, 56,

170, 172, 217, 218, 227, 228

job analysis, 31, 51–52, 77, 167

knowledge management, 99, 135 (see

also Applications, tacit knowledge

capture)

management strategy, 58

managerial effectiveness, 35

marital guidance, 223–225

market research and new product

development, 13, 51, 85

municipal administration, 154

occupational languages, 12

Applications (cont.)

organisation development, 40, 77, 92,

222

performance appraisal, 31, 96, 97, 102,

102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 113,

117, 121, 122, 133

performance appraisal questionnaire

design, 12, 113, 167

performance appraisal (teachers), 55

personal change and development, 36,

96, 150, 167

project management in the oil

extraction industry, 182, 183, 249

publisher’s sales, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160,

162, 173, 174, 177, 178

quality control, 86–87

reflective analysis in DBA programmes,

221

sales effectiveness, 154, 170–171

tacit knowledge capture, 46, 70, 79, 103,

136, 164, 182

teachers’ views of classroom control,

146

teaching aids evaluation, 17, 114

team building, 40, 222, 225, 230

therapeutic see Applications, clinical

training evaluation see Applications,

instructor effectiveness

training needs analysis, 167

venture capital investment decisions,

114, 168–169, 169

wine-tasting, 180

Asking ‘why?’, 188

Change

depth of, 214–215

handling new constructs in analysis,

210, 216

Change agent role, 204, 230

Change Grid, Messy, 214–221, 226,

232 Ex, 253–255

procedure, 216–221, 217, 218

Change Grid, Simple, 211–214, 216,

230–231, 252

procedure, 213, 232, 252–253

Change Grids, cluster analysis of 212

Change in construing, 102, 209, 210–222

Change models, in Personal Construct

Psychology, 219–220

Circumspection see C-P-C cycle, the

Cluster analysis, 92, 94, 73, 118–127, 132,

137

analogy for, 137, 138

interpretation of, 121–127, 122, 123, 125

rationale for, 110–121, 120

Cognitive complexity see Index measures

Competency frameworks, 135, 167

see also Applications, performance

appraisal

Computer software, 6, 49, 80, 95, 118, 120,

121

cluster analysis, 127

SPSS, 95

WEBGRID, 9, 144

Construct

as a contrast/preference, 11, 15, 27, 33,

61, 188

basic definition, 10–12, 61

initial example, 17, 18

subordinate, 186, 187, 189

superordinate, 186, 187, 189, 194, 206,

215

Construct elicitation see Eliciting

constructs; Grid interview

Construct relationships, 45, 93, 94, 95, 106

abstracting across the cleavage, 187

in Change Grids, 212

extending the cleavage, 187

in Messy Change Grid analysis, 220

in Principal Components Analysis, 130

Construct reversal, 108–109, 109, 111, 117,

126, 142, 143

and Overall Summary Construct, 173

values not symmetrical, 116

Construct system

as a hierarchy, 50, 186, 215 (see also

Personal values)

complexity of, 53

Constructive alternativism, 15, 20

and correctness/appropriateness, 18,

43, 44, 46, 49, 74, 132, 163, 198

and principal components axis

labelling, 135

Constructs

affective, 88, 91

attributional, 88, 91

behavioural, 88

bent, 208

constellatory, 85–87, 94

core see Core constructs

eliciting/specifying see Eliciting

constructs

evaluative, 88, 91

figurative, 169

304 SUBJECT INDEX

invalid, as ineffective predictors, 216

level of operational detail, 33–34, 192

number of, 44, 79, 81

peripheral, 83–85, 170, 187

pre-emptive, 15, 87–88, 94, 219

pre-verbal, 63, 215

propositional, 47, 85–87, 91, 114, 168,

219

supplied, 56–57, 81, 86, 106, 125

supplied, in Honey’s content analysis,

170, 171

supplied versus elicited, 56

what to do when they don’t apply see

Ratings, inapplicable

Constructs and symbolic expression,

62–63

Content analysis, 56, 84

accuracy of categorisation, 159

accuracy of coding, 150, 166

as aggregation of meanings, 146, 149,

170, 173

bootstrapped schemes used to provide

standard categories, 167

bootstrapping, 165, 166, 173, 175, 176,

177

bootstrapping technique, 148–149

combining theory-based and

bootstrapped approaches, 168–169

core categorisation procedure, 149, 151,

155

differential analysis, 152–155, 166, 176

generic approach to, 146–164, 151–152

reliability benchmark, 161

reliability of Feixas’ scheme, 168

reliability procedure, 155–163, 156, 158,

159, 160, 162, 165, 173, 221

reliability procedure and Honey’s

technique, 175, 177, 181

reproducibility of categorisation, 150

and research design, 147–148, 164–165

Ex

and sample size, 146–147, 177

significance testing in, 154–155

stability of categorisation, 150

standard category systems, 148,

167–168

use of file-cards, 151

Content analysis schemes

Duck’s for interpersonal relationships,

168

Feixas’ generic, 167

Hill’s, 180

Honey’s, 169–177, 174, 182 Ex, 183,

249

Landfield’s generic, 167

Viney’s for cognitive anxiety, 168

Contrasting pole, 195

Control see C-P-C cycle, the

Core constructs, 83–85, 91, 187, 193, 225

and personal values, 51

C-P-C cycle, the, 219–220, 254

Creativity Cycle, the, 219, 220

Credulous listening, 46, 48, 75

Data structures, 187

Dendrogram, 121, 123, 124, 122

Difference grid, simple partnering, 226

procedure for, 223

Differences in construing, 209, 221–230

Elaboration of elements and constructs,

50–51, 54, 215

Elaborative choices, 231

Element

basic definition, 13

Ideal, 57–58, 81, 100, 131, 140, 141

Element relationships, 93, 94, 99, 119,

140

in Change Grids, 212

in Principal Components Analysis,

130–131

Elements

choice of, 13, 14, 29–33, 31, 38, 42, 78

choice of, in Exchange Grid technique,

226

choice of, in Simple Partnering

technique, 223

content analysis of, 150

elicited, 30–32, 31, 38, 146, 223, 225

initial example, 16, 17, 18

number of, 42

rated see Rating Scale

Self, 30, 38, 57, 81, 131

supplied, 30, 57–58, 81, 223, 226

Eliciting constructs, 33–36

dyadic form, 53

full context form, 53

monadic, 60–61

non-verbal forms, 61–64

precision of 50–51, 64–69

triadic form, 53, 108–109

Emergent pole, 48, 54, 60, 65, 186, 208

Emotional expression during grid

elicitation, 80

SUBJECT INDEX 305

Exchange Grid, 210, 231

‘as I myself would have filled it out’,

229

‘as the other filled it out’, 229

procedure for, 225–230, 227

Experience Cycle, the, 216, 220, 221, 254

Forced choice technique, 198

Grid interview

basic procedure, 24–26, 56, 64, 65

basic procedure, alternatives to, 52–58,

164

confidentiality and anonymity in, 43,

198, 223–224, 225–226

designing, 38–39

‘getting stuck’ in, 43, 44

issues of entry, 23–24

procedural issues exercise, 52

setting and style, 22–24

as a social process, 22–23, 60, 193, 195,

195–197, 210 (see also Process

analysis)

timing, 15, 16, 19

transcript, 258–270

use of filecards in, 24, 33, 38, 53

Gridsheet, 25

Group grids

analysis of 32, 144–184

exploration of topic in, 223, 226

grid interview in, 224, 226

Help and support

PCP Bibliography, 234

PCP Information Centre, 234

The Easy Repertory Grid Website, 234

H-I-L index, 171, 174, 175, 176, 178, 182

Horoscopes, and grids, 136

Idiosyncracy, capturing, 222

see also Constructive alternativism, and

correctness/appropriateness

Implications Grid, 10, 187, 220

Implicit pole, 48, 54, 60, 65, 186, 208

Index measures, 6, 73–74

cognitive complexity, 73

extremity scores, 74

in Messy Change Grid analysis, 221

Knowledge, social definition of, 76, 145,

150

Kolb Cycle, 219, 221

Laddering down, 39, 170, 185, 187, 226

basic procedure for, 64–67, 66

definition, 34–35

distinguished from pyramiding, 68–69

examples, 66

in Simple Partnering technique, 224

when to use, 65

Laddering upwards, 16, 83, 186

basic procedure for, 187–189, 190, 191

‘crossing over’, 195, 196

procedural issues, 187, 250–251

as start of Resistance-to-Change

technique, 199

time required for values elicitation,

197

worksheet for, 205

when to stop see Personal values,

recognising

Loose construing, 219, 220

Meaning

capture criteria, 53, 58

captured in words and numbers, 72

captured through observation, 58–59

captured through story-telling, 59–61

captured without using a grid, 58–64

and construct structure, 186

negotiation of, 15, 20, 24, 30, 75, 82, 113,

132 (see also Change Agent Role)

negotiation of, in Simple Partnering

technique, 224

Non-preferred pole, 188

Occupational values, 194

Ontological choice, 191

Overall summary construct, 56, 148, 170,

171, 173

Over-interpretation, 212

see also under Principal Components

Analysis

Ownership, feeling of, 73, 94, 98, 112

Percentage similarity score, 141, 171, 174,

175, 176, 178, 181, 182, 248

construct, 114, 117, 124, 125, 142

element, 101, 102, 123, 124, 141

in Messy Change Grid analysis, 220

and personal metric, 171, 173, 174

Person as scientist, 44

Personal change see Change models

306 SUBJECT INDEX

Personal Construct Theory, 1, 2, 11, 59,

225, 231–232, 277–279

Choice Corollary, 231

Commonality Corollary, 222

Experience Corollary, 216

Fragmentation Corollary, 170

Individuality Corollary, 222

Organisation Corollary, 170, 186

Sociality Corollary, 59, 222

Personal repertoire, 12, 56

Personal values, 83, 180, 187, 189–197,

190, 191, 215, 225, 231

accuracy of identification, 197

attributes of, abstraction, 192

attributes of, explicit information, 194

attributes of, intimacy, 193

attributes of, self-evidence, 194

attributes of, self-reference, 193–194

attributes of, universality, 192–193

capturing, 185–197

encouraging the expression of, 194–195

as a hierarchy, 200, 201, 203, 206–207

recognising 192–195

stability, 208

Polarity see Construct reversal; Emergent

pole; Implicit pole; Preferred pole

Positivism, 44

Pre-emption see C-P-C cycle, the

Preferred pole, 187, 195

Principal Components Analysis, 73, 94,

127–138

analogy for, 137, 138

in Change Grid analysis, 214 Ex

interpretation of, 131–138, 144 Ex

in Messy Change Grid analysis, 221

over-interpretation of, 132, 134, 135

rationale, 127–131, 127, 129

variance contributions, 128, 129

Principal Components Analysis graph,

129, 129, 131

Procedural questions

about constructs, 42–47

about elements, 42

about ratings, 47–51

Process analysis, 63, 72, 77–80, 81–82, 83,

84, 87, 89–90, 118, 121, 132, 212

and constructs, 78–79

and ratings, 79–80

Psychometric tests, 6, 11, 42, 77, 79, 136

Pyramiding technique, 67–69, 66, 69–70

Ex, 74, 186, 187

and approach to rating, 68

distinguished from laddering down,

68–69

Qualifying phrase, 28–29, 35, 36, 39, 47,

67, 78, 81, 224, 226

and Overall Summary Construct, 172

Qualitative versus quantitative, 71–72

Range of convenience, 12, 13, 79, 85, 187,

210

Ranking not rating, 55–56

Rating scale, number of points, 36, 54–55

Rating scale directionality, 18–19, 25, 47

Ratings

accidental reversal of, 47, 48

alternatives to, 54–56

basic use, 13–14, 36–37, 47, 79–80

inapplicable, 37, 49–51

initial example, 17, 18

missing, 81

subtracting differences between, 211

Realm of discourse, 12, 13

in Simple Partnering technique, 224

Reliability, 103–104, 150, 151, 152

Index A, 157, 160, 162

Index B, 157, 160, 162

see also Content analysis,

reliability

Reliability coefficients, 165

Cohen’s Kappa, 163, 168

Perrault–Leigh Index, 163, 168

Reliability tables, 155, 157, 156, 158, 159,

160, 162, 181

Repertory Grid

basic definition, 14–15, 52

basic example, 16, 17

comparing different number of

elements, 55–56

as decision-making technique, 99, 140

as a decision-making technique

exercise, 140, 143

in a dissertation, 4, 21, 39, 76, 135, 163,

177

as a mental map, 14, 29, 41, 48, 104

and personal change, 136 (see also

Applications, guidance and

counselling)

not a personality assessment, 103

as a picture of a construct hierarchy,

187, 250

time required for, 197

Research, collaborative, 28, 98

SUBJECT INDEX 307

Research design, 82

Research methods, 4

Resistance to Change as used in personal

and organisational change

applications, 203–204

Resistance-to-Change technique, 16, 83

interview transcript, 273–276

procedure, 199–204, 201, 203, 206,

273–276

rationale for, 187, 197–199

Reversal see Construct reversal

Role conflict, 76

Role Construct Repertory Test, 11, 15, 32

Self-Characterisation Technique, 10,

59–60

Self-Grid, 37, 39

Self-reference, 69

Slot-rattling, 214–215, 231, 232, 254

Social Desirability Effect, 5, 197

minimising, 198

‘So-what?’ feeling, the, 26, 51

Subordinate construct, and resistance to

change, 202–203

Sum of differences, 141

construct, 104, 110, 114, 115, 174, 245

element, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102

Thinking and reflection, managerial, 214

Tight construing, 219, 220

Top-and-Tail value see H-I-L index

basic definition, 12–13

choice of, 27–28

initial example, 16

introduction of, 78

and overall summary construct, 170,

171, 173, 175

and preferred pole, 188

as seen by two different people, 222

unvarying, 167, 210

varying, 210

Triadic elicitation see Grid interview

Two voices, 1, 2

Unconscious motivation, 189

Using this book, 2–3, 10

Values see Occupational values; Personal

values

Websites and URLs, 4, 95, 144, 233–234

Working with each other’s constructs, 222

308 SUBJECT INDEX