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1. See Yin ( 1979) for an early discussion of the routinization of innovations.

2. In the early 1980s, the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation funded what

was then the executive search firm of Isaacson, Ford, Webb to be available to

governors looking for new commissioners of correction. And the National Governors

Association, with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation,

began a State Health Recruitment Center in the early 1990s that lasted no more

than two years. Individual governors and mayors have turned to search firms

from time to time, but most rely on a narrow pool of people they know.

3. The Department of Juvenile Justice won the Ford Foundation/Kennedy

School of Government Innovation Award in State and Local Government in 1986,

the first year of the awards program, for its case-management program for at-risk

youth. The department was also recognized in the Public Broadcasting System

documentary, ‘‘Excellence in the Public Sector with Tom Peters.’’ Additional program

innovations included creating an Aftercare Program and adapting Home

Builders to the juvenile justice system in a program we called Family Ties.