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List of Exhibits xiii

Preface to the Third Edition xvii

Acknowledgments xxxi

Advance Organizer for This Book 1

PART I

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT SUCCESSION

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 5

CHAPTER 1

What Is Succession Planning and Management? 7

Six Ministudies: Can You Solve These Succession Problems? 7

Defining Succession Planning and Management 10

Distinguishing Succession Planning and Management from

Replacement Planning, Workforce Planning, Talent Management,

and Human Capital Management 16

Making the Business Case for Succession Planning and Management 18

Reasons for a Succession Planning and Management Program 20

Best Practices and Approaches 30

Ensuring Leadership Continuity in Organizations 35

Summary 39

CHAPTER 2

Trends Influencing Succession Planning and Management 41

The Ten Key Trends 42

What Does All This Mean for Succession Planning and Management? 54

Summary 55

CHAPTER 3

Moving to a State-of-the-Art Approach 56

Characteristics of Effective Programs 56

The Life Cycle of Succession Planning and Management Programs:

Five Generations 59

Identifying and Solving Problems with Various Approaches 69

Integrating Whole Systems Transformational Change and

Appreciative Inquiry into Succession: What Are These Topics,

and What Added Value Do They Bring? 76

Requirements for a Fifth-Generation Approach 78

Key Steps in a Fifth-Generation Approach 78

Summary 81

CHAPTER 4

Competency Identification and Values Clarification:

Keys to Succession Planning and Management 82

What Are Competencies? 82

How Are Competencies Used in Succession Planning and

Management? 83

Conducting Competency Identification Studies 84

Using Competency Models 85

New Developments in Competency Identification, Modeling, and

Assessment 85

Identifying and Using Generic and Culture-Specific Competency

Development Strategies to Build Bench Strength 86

What Are Values, and What Is Values Clarification? 87

How Are Values Used in Succession Planning and Management? 89

Conducting Values Clarification Studies 90

Using Values Clarification 91

Bringing It All Together: Competencies and Values 91

Summary 91

PART II

LAYING THE FOUNDATION FOR A SUCCESSION

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 93

CHAPTER 5

Making the Case for Major Change 95

Assessing Current Problems and Practices 95

Demonstrating the Need 101

Determining Organizational Requirements 108

Contents ix

Linking Succession Planning and Management Activities to

Organizational and Human Resource Strategy 108

Benchmarking Best Practices and Common Business Practices in

Other Organizations 113

Obtaining and Building Management Commitment 114

The Key Role of the CEO in the Succession Effort 120

Summary 124

CHAPTER 6

Starting a Systematic Program 125

Conducting a Risk Analysis and Building a Commitment to Change 125

Clarifying Program Roles 126

Formulating a Mission Statement 130

Writing Policy and Procedures 136

Identifying Target Groups 138

Clarifying the Roles of the CEO, Senior Managers, and Others 142

Setting Program Priorities 143

Addressing the Legal Framework 145

Establishing Strategies for Rolling Out the Program 147

Summary 155

CHAPTER 7

Refining the Program 156

Preparing a Program Action Plan 156

Communicating the Action Plan 157

Conducting Succession Planning and Management Meetings 160

Training on Succession Planning and Management 164

Counseling Managers About Succession Planning Problems in Their

Areas 172

Summary 174

PART III

ASSESSING THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE 177

CHAPTER 8

Assessing Present Work Requirements and Individual Job

Performance 179

Identifying Key Positions 180

Three Approaches to Determining Work Requirements in Key

Positions 184

Using Full-Circle, Multirater Assessments 189

Appraising Performance and Applying Performance Management 192

Creating Talent Pools: Techniques and Approaches 195

Thinking Beyond Talent Pools 200

Summary 202

CHAPTER 9

Assessing Future Work Requirements and Individual

Potential 203

Identifying Key Positions and Talent Requirements for the Future 203

Assessing Individual Potential: The Traditional Approach 210

The Growing Use of Assessment Centers and Portfolios 221

Summary 224

PART IV

CLOSING THE ‘‘DEVELOPMENTAL GAP’’: OPERATING

AND EVALUATING A SUCCESSION PLANNING AND

MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 225

CHAPTER 10

Developing Internal Successors 227

Testing Bench Strength 227

Formulating Internal Promotion Policy 232

Preparing Individual Development Plans 235

Developing Successors Internally 242

The Role of Leadership Development Programs 251

The Role of Coaching 252

The Role of Executive Coaching 253

The Role of Mentoring 253

The Role of Action Learning 255

Summary 256

CHAPTER 11

Assessing Alternatives to Internal Development 257

The Need to Manage for ‘‘Getting the Work Done’’ Rather than

‘‘Managing Succession’’ 257

Innovative Approaches to Tapping the Retiree Base 266

Deciding What to Do 268

Summary 270

CHAPTER 12

Using Technology to Support Succession Planning and

Management Programs 271

Defining Online and High-Tech Methods 271

Contents xi

Where to Apply Technology Methods 276

How to Evaluate and Use Technology Applications 276

What Specialized Competencies Do Succession Planning and

Management Coordinators Need to Use These Applications? 289

Summary 290

CHAPTER 13

Evaluating Succession Planning and Management

Programs 291

What Is Evaluation? 291

What Should Be Evaluated? 292

How Should Evaluation Be Conducted? 295

Summary 306

CHAPTER 14

The Future of Succession Planning and Management 307

The Fifteen Predictions 308

Summary 329

APPENDIX I :

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Succession

Planning and Management 331

APPENDIX I I :

Case Studies on Succession Planning and Management 337

Case 1: How Business Plans for Succession 337

Case 2: How Government Plans for Succession 341

Case 3: How a Nonprofit Organization Plans for Succession 354

Case 4: Small Business Case 360

Case 5: Family Business Succession 362

Case 6: CEO Succession Planning Case 363

Notes 367

What’s on the CD? 387

Index 391

About the Author 399

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L I S T OF EXHIBITS

Exhibit P-1. Age Distribution of the U.S. Population, Selected Years,

1965–2025 xx

Exhibit P-2. U.S. Population by Age, 1965–2025 xxi

Exhibit P-3. The Organization of the Book xxv

Exhibit 1-1. How General Electric Planned the Succession 11

Exhibit 1-2. The Big Mac Succession 14

Exhibit 1-3. Demographic Information About Respondents to a 2004 Survey

on Succession Planning and Management: Industries 21

Exhibit 1-4. Demographic Information About Respondents to a 2004 Survey

on Succession Planning and Management: Size 21

Exhibit 1-5. Demographic Information About Respondents to a 2004 Survey

on Succession Planning and Management: Job Functions of

Respondents 22

Exhibit 1-6. Reasons for Succession Planning and Management Programs 23

Exhibit 1-7. Strategies for Reducing Turnover and Increasing Retention 26

Exhibit 1-8. Workforce Reductions Among Survey Respondents 29

Exhibit 1-9. A Summary of Best Practices on Succession Planning and

Management from Several Research Studies 31

Exhibit 2-1. An Assessment Questionnaire: How Well Is Your Organization

Managing the Consequences of Trends Influencing Succession

Planning and Management? 43

Exhibit 2-2. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 49

Exhibit 3-1. Characteristics of Effective Succession Planning and

Management Programs 60

Exhibit 3-2. Assessment Questionnaire for Effective Succession Planning

and Management 64

Exhibit 3-3. A Simple Exercise to Dramatize the Need for Succession

Planning and Management 67

Exhibit 3-4. The Dow Chemical Company’s Formula for Succession 70

Exhibit 3-5. Chief Difficulties with Succession Planning and Management

Programs 72

Exhibit 3-6. The Seven-Pointed Star Model for Systematic Succession

Planning and Management 79

Exhibit 4-1. An Interview Guide to Collect Corporate-Culture-Specific

Competency Development Strategies 88

Exhibit 5-1. Strategies for Handling Resistance to Implementing Succession

Planning and Management 97

Exhibit 5-2. The Importance of Succession Planning and Management 98

Exhibit 5-3. Making Decisions About Successors (in Organizations Without

Systematic Succession Planning and Management) 99

Exhibit 5-4. A Questionnaire for Assessing the Status of Succession Planning

and Management in an Organization 102

Exhibit 5-5. A Worksheet for Demonstrating the Need for Succession

Planning and Management 106

Exhibit 5-6. An Interview Guide for Determining the Requirements for a

Succession Planning and Management Program 109

Exhibit 5-7. An Interview Guide for Benchmarking Succession Planning and

Management Practices 115

Exhibit 5-8. Opinions of Top Managers About Succession Planning and

Management 118

Exhibit 5-9. Opinions of Human Resource Professionals About Succession

Planning and Management 119

Exhibit 5-10. Actions to Build Management Commitment to Succession

Planning and Management 121

Exhibit 5-11. Rating Your CEO for His/Her Role in Succession Planning and

Management 123

Exhibit 6-1. A Model for Conceptualizing Role Theory 127

Exhibit 6-2. Management Roles in Succession Planning and Management:

A Grid 129

Exhibit 6-3. A Worksheet to Formulate a Mission Statement for Succession

Planning and Management 133

Exhibit 6-4. A Sample Succession Planning and Management Policy 137

Exhibit 6-5. Targeted Groups for Succession Planning and Management 139

Exhibit 6-6. An Activity for Identifying Initial Targets for Succession

Planning and Management Activities 140

Exhibit 6-7. An Activity for Establishing Program Priorities in Succession

Planning and Management 146

Exhibit 6-8. U.S. Labor Laws 148

Exhibit 7-1. A Worksheet for Preparing an Action Plan to Establish the

Succession Planning and Management Program 158

Exhibit 7-2. Sample Outlines for In-House Training on Succession Planning

and Management 168

Exhibit 8-1. A Worksheet for Writing a Key Position Description 186

List of Exhibits xv

Exhibit 8-2. A Worksheet for Considering Key Issues in Full-Circle,

Multirater Assessments 191

Exhibit 8-3. The Relationship Between Performance Management and

Performance Appraisal 194

Exhibit 8-4. Approaches to Conducting Employee Performance Appraisal 197

Exhibit 8-5. A Worksheet for Developing an Employee Performance

Appraisal Linked to a Position Description 199

Exhibit 9-1. A Worksheet for Environmental Scanning 205

Exhibit 9-2. An Activity on Organizational Analysis 206

Exhibit 9-3. An Activity for Preparing Realistic Scenarios to Identify Future

Key Positions 208

Exhibit 9-4. An Activity for Preparing Future-Oriented Key Position

Descriptions 209

Exhibit 9-5. Steps in Conducting Future-Oriented ‘‘Rapid Results

Assessment’’ 211

Exhibit 9-6. How to Classify Individuals by Performance and Potential 214

Exhibit 9-7. A Worksheet for Making Global Assessments 216

Exhibit 9-8. A Worksheet to Identify Success Factors 217

Exhibit 9-9. An Individual Potential Assessment Form 218

Exhibit 10-1. A Sample Replacement Chart Format: Typical Succession

Planning and Management Inventory for the Organization 229

Exhibit 10-2. Succession Planning and Management Inventory by Position 230

Exhibit 10-3. Talent Shows: What Happens? 233

Exhibit 10-4. A Simplified Model of Steps in Preparing Individual

Development Plans (IDPs) 237

Exhibit 10-5. A Worksheet for Preparing Learning Objectives Based on

Individual Development Needs 239

Exhibit 10-6. A Worksheet for Identifying the Resources Necessary to

Support Developmental Experiences 241

Exhibit 10-7. A Sample Individual Development Plan 243

Exhibit 10-8. Methods of Grooming Individuals for Advancement 245

Exhibit 10-9. Key Strategies for Internal Development 247

Exhibit 11-1. Deciding When Replacing a Key Job Incumbent Is Unnecessary:

A Flowchart 259

Exhibit 11-2. A Worksheet for Identifying Alternatives to the Traditional

Approach to Succession Planning and Management 267

Exhibit 11-3. A Tool for Contemplating Ten Ways to Tap the Retiree Base 269

Exhibit 12-1. Continua of Online and High-Tech Approaches 272

Exhibit 12-2. A Starting Point for a Rating Sheet to Assess Vendors for

Succession Planning and Management Software 273

Exhibit 12-3. A Hierarchy of Online and High-Tech Applications for

Succession Planning and Management 277

Exhibit 12-4. A Worksheet for Brainstorming When and How to Use Online

and High-Tech Methods 280

Exhibit 13-1. The Hierarchy of Succession Planning and Management

Evaluation 294

Exhibit 13-2. Guidelines for Evaluating the Succession Planning and

Management Program 296

Exhibit 13-3. A Worksheet for Identifying Appropriate Ways to Evaluate

Succession Planning and Management in an Organization 298

Exhibit 13-4. A Sample ‘‘Incident Report’’ for Succession Planning and

Management 299

Exhibit 13-5. Steps for Completing a Program Evaluation of a Succession

Planning and Management Program 301

Exhibit 13-6. A Checksheet for Conducting a Program Evaluation for the

Succession Planning and Management Program 303

Exhibit 14-1. A Worksheet to Structure Your Thinking About Predictions for

Succession Planning and Management in the Future 309

Exhibit 14-2. A Worksheet to Structure Your Thinking About Alternative

Approaches to Meeting Succession Needs 314

Exhibit 14-3. Age Distribution of the U.S. Population in 2025 317

Exhibit 14-4. Age Distribution of the Chinese Population in 2025 318

Exhibit 14-5. Age Distribution of the Population in the United Kingdom

in 2025 318

Exhibit 14-6. Age Distribution of the French Population in 2025 319

Exhibit 14-7. Important Characteristics of Career Planning and Management

Programs 323

Exhibit 14-8. An Assessment Sheet for Integrating Career Planning and

Management Programs with Succession Planning and

Management Programs 325