Index

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34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 

A

Academic support, of the individual right

interpretation, 282–284

Access, restricting, 8–9

Accidents, firearms and, 70–71

Accuracy, of research data, 43

ADAM. See Arrestee Drug Abuse

Monitoring

AddHealth. See National Longitudinal

Study on Adolescent Health

Administrative samples, 37–41

Aggravated assault, 64–65

rates of aggravated assault by firearm

involvement, 65

Aggregate crime, estimates of percentage

change in, 145

Aggregation, of individual survey responses,

58–59

Aggregation bias, 166

AGVQ. See Attitudes Toward Guns and

Violence Questionnaire

American Civil Liberties Union, 236

Analytic framework of illegal firearm

acquisition, 82–87

general model, 82–86

intermediate effects of market

interventions, 87

using the framework, 86–87

Analyzing estimates for robustness, 139–150

dummy variable model with common

time pattern, 140–141

estimates of percentage change in

aggregate crime, 145

estimates of percentage change in

disaggregate property crimes, 148

estimates of percentage change in

disaggregate violent crimes, 146–147

extending the baseline specification to

2000, 140–145

sensitivity of the results to controls,

145–150

trend model with common time pattern,

142–143

trend model with varying postlaw

change durations, 150–151

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 13

ARIMA model, 228

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM),

37, 40–41, 44, 48, 87

Ashcroft, John, 278

Assault weapons, banning to reduce

criminal access to firearms, 96–97

Assaults

aggravated, 64–65

sexual, with firearm involvement, 66

Assessment

of individual-level studies, 183

subjective, of self-defense with a firearm,

117

Assessment of ecological studies, 163–170

ecological bias, 170

proxy measures of ownership, 164–170

substitution and confounders, 163–164

318 INDEX

Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence

Questionnaire (AGVQ), 210

Attributable risk, 198–200

Australia, gun buy-backs in, 96

Autopsies. See Psychological autopsy

studies

Ayres and Donohue’s results, 134–135, 136

B

Background checks, conducted by FBI, 52n

Banning assault weapons, to reduce criminal

access to firearms, 96–97

Bartley-Fox gun law (Massachusetts), 226–

229

BATF. See Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and

Firearms

Behavioral interventions, 201–214

firearms prevention programs, 202–209

outcome measures, 203, 208–211

quality of the research, 213–214

study design, 211–213

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

(BRFSS), 164, 195

BJS. See Bureau of Justice Statistics

Black and Nagin’s results, 129, 132–133

Boston Gun Project, 10, 236–240

Brady Centers to Prevent Gun Violence, 213

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act,

93–94

Breyer, Stephen, 287

BRFSS. See Behavioral Risk Factor

Surveillance System

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

(BATF), 4, 51, 56, 74, 240

firearms trace data, 79–80

Firearms Tracing Center, 38

investigation data, 80–82

Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative,

39, 79–80

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 51, 79, 93,

101

Buy-backs. See Gun buy-backs

C

CAP. See Child access prevention laws

Carrying of guns, mandatory penalties for

unlawful, 226–229

Case-control studies

association of suicide and gun

ownership, 196–200

attributable risk, 198–200

Causality framework, 6

direct, 153

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,

3, 13, 21, 51, 195

National Center for Injury Prevention

and Control, 47

Channels, for firearms trafficking, 81

Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 292

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad v.

Chicago, 288

Chicago-Kent Law Review, 284

Child access prevention (CAP) laws, 9, 217–

219

Clinton administration, 39

“Cluster” method, 138n

Commerce Clause attack, 297

Committee to Improve Research

Information and Data on Firearms,

1, 13, 139

control variable analysis, 273–274

“Response to Wilson’s Dissent,” 18,

272–275

trend model analysis, 274–275

Comprehensiveness in developing useful

research data, 44–45

context, 45

scope, 44–45

Conceptual framework for firearms and

suicide, 153

Conclusions, 2–3, 14, 234–235, 241. See

also Recommendations

Control variables and specification

committee control variable analysis,

273–274

in statistical analyses of right-to-carry

laws, 128–135

Convenience samples, 37–41

Correlation coefficient, between a proxy

and gun ownership rates, 165

Correlation framework, spurious, 153

Crime, hypothetical rates by year, 301

Criminal access to firearms

handgun acquisition, 78

interventions to reduce, 89–98

Criminal encounters, stages and outcome of

potential, 107

INDEX 319

Criminal justice interventions

enhanced sentences for criminal use of

firearms, 223–230

gun courts, 221–222

problem-oriented policing to prevent

firearm-related crime, 230–241

to reduce firearm-related violence, 9–10,

18, 221–241

Criminal use of firearms, 78

sources of firearm data on, 26–29

Cross-sectional studies, 154–162

of associations between firearms

prevalence and suicide in the U.S.,

156–161

of gun laws and suicide, 184, 186–189

international studies, 161–162

U.S. studies, 155–161

Curse of dimensionality, 305

D

Data, 20–42, 122–123

interpreting, 82

observational, 299

quality of, 16

revised new sets of, 126–127, 139

revised original sets of, 122, 125–126

Data Elements for Emergency Department

Systems (DEEDS), 47

Data for measuring firearms violence and

ownership, 18–52

general objectives for developing useful

research data, 42–48

a patchwork of data sets, 20–42

sources of, 15–16

Data on firearms ownership, use, and

markets, 34–42

administrative and convenience samples,

37–41

proxy measures of ownership, 41–42

surveys, 34–37

Data on violence and crime, 20–34

National Crime Victimization Survey,

21, 30

National Incident-Based Reporting

System, 32–33

National Violent Death Reporting

System, 33–34

selected sources of firearm data, 22–31

Uniform Crime Reports, 31–32

Data recommendations, 3–5

emerging data systems on violent events,

3

methodological approaches, 4–5

ownership data, 4

Data systems, 194–195

David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 13

DEEDS. See Data Elements for Emergency

Department Systems

Defensive gun use (DGU), 6–7, 103–114

comparing sampling design of the NCVS

and NSDS, 104

coverage in, 105–108

recommendations on, 6–7

response problems in firearms use

surveys, 108–114

Demand, for illegal firearm acquisition, 84–

85

Denning, Brannon P., 286

Deterrence and defense recommendations,

6–7

defensive gun use, 6–7

right-to-carry laws, 7

Deterrence approach, applications of

pulling-levers focus, 240–241

DGU. See Defensive gun use

Dimension reduction, 308n

Dimensionality, curse of, 305

Direct causality framework, 153

Disaggregate property crimes, estimates of

percentage change in, 148

Disaggregate violent crimes, estimates of

percentage change in, 146–147

Dissent, 18, 269–271

Committee’s response to Wilson’s, 18,

272–275

Distribution of firearms ownership, 59

District of Columbia

handgun ban to reduce criminal access

to firearms in, 97–98

Personal Protection Act, 279

Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program, 40

Due Process Clause, of the Fourteenth

Amendment, 288

DUF. See Drug Use Forecasting program

Duggan’s results, 128–129

Dummy variable model, 123–124, 130–133

with common time pattern, 123, 126–

127, 140–141

with “region-interacted time pattern

model,” 123

Duncan v. Louisiana, 288

320 INDEX

E

Ecological bias, 170

Ecological studies of associations between

firearms prevalence and suicide in the

U.S., 156–161

Ecological studies of gun ownership and the

overall risk of suicide, 154–170

across time, 162–163

assessment of ecological studies, 163–

170

cross-sectional associations, 154–162

Efficacy of self-defense with a firearm, 114–

119

empirical evidence, 115–117

firearms and fatalities, 117–119

probability of injury and loss among

victims by means of self-protection,

115

subjective assessments, 117

Emerson, Timothy Joe, 276

Empirical evidence, of self-defense with a

firearm, 115–117

Empirical research, contribution to judicial

scrutiny, 297–298

Endpoint. See Updated sample endpoint

Enforcement and law, sources of firearm

data on, 28–31

Enhanced sentences for criminal use of

firearms, 223–230

mandatory penalties for unlawful

carrying of guns, 226–229

sentencing enhancements for firearmrelated

crimes, 223–226

Estimates

analyzing for robustness, 139–150

modeling of the fraction of homeless in a

city, 307

nonparametric, 305–306

of relations among crime rates, the

explanatory variables, and adoption

of right-to-carry laws, 304–308

Explanatory variables

choosing, 299–304, 308

and hypothetical crime rates by year,

301

External validity, in firearms use surveys,

111–113

F

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 4, 11,

21

background checks conducted by, 52n

Supplemental Homicide Reports, 32, 64

Federal courts of appeals, and the Second

Amendment, 284

Federal firearms licensees (FFLs), 38–39,

73–74, 81–82, 85, 89–91

scofflaws among, 90

Felons, and firearm possession, 77–78, 294n

FFLs. See Federal firearms licensees

Findings, 2–3, 14, 234–235, 241

Firearm availability and ownership, 56–59.

See also Guns

aggregation of individual survey

responses, 58–59

distribution of firearms ownership across

geographic regions, 59

estimated number and per capita

ownership of firearms in the U.S., 57

production-based estimates, 56–57

survey-based estimates, 57–58

Firearm data

criminal use of firearms, 26–29

firearm-related injury/death, 22–25

firearms and youth, 28–29

firearms industry and retail, 24–27

firearms ownership, 30–31

law and enforcement, 28–31

selected sources of, 22–31

Firearm injury prevention programs, 18,

201–220

behavioral interventions, 201–214

firearms safety technology, 214–220

Firearm involvement

rate of robbery by, 66

rates of aggravated assault by, 65

Firearm possession, felons and, 77–78, 294n

Firearm prevalence, psychological autopsy

studies of, 173–181

Firearm-related crimes, sentencing

enhancements for, 223–226

Firearm-related harm, 59–71

and accidents, 70–71

murder victimization rates by race, 63

and nonfatal injuries, 64–66

nonfatal injuries by intent, 60

overall firearm-related deaths, 60

INDEX 321

Firearm-related injury/death, 60

criminal justice interventions to reduce

violence in, 18, 221–241

and self-defense, 117–119

sources of firearm data on, 22–25

Firearm-related suicides, number and rate

of, 67

Firearm Suppression Program (FSP), for St.

Louis youth, 235–236

Firearms and homicides, 61–64

firearm-related murder victimization

rates by race, 63

international, 55

offenders, 64

victims, 62–63

weaponry in homicide, 61–62

Firearms and nonfatal injuries, 64–66

aggravated assault, 64–65

rape and sexual assaults, 66

robberies, 65–66

Firearms and self-harm, 66–69

nonfatal self-harm, 69

suicide, 66–69

Firearms and suicide, 18, 66–69, 152–200

conceptual framework, 153

cross-sectional studies of gun laws and,

184

difference made by a gun law, 184–192

ecological studies of gun ownership and

the overall risk of suicide, 154–170

individual-level studies of association

between, 171–184

international, 55

interrupted-time-series studies of, 188–

191

interventions to reduce, 8–10

likelihood of, 196–198

measures of association in case-control

studies, 196–200

number and rate of firearm-related, 67

recommendations, 192–196

relationship with household gun

ownership, 167

by selected age groupings, 70

time series studies of gun laws and

suicide, 185–192

Firearms and youth, sources of firearm data

on, 28–29

Firearms commerce, legal and illegal, 73–77

Firearms diverted through trafficking

channels, volume of, 81

Firearms flows, 75

Firearms industry and retail, sources of

firearm data on, 24–27

Firearms Owners Protection Act, 16n, 50

Firearms ownership

distribution of, 59

estimated number and per capita in the

U.S., 57

sources of data on, 30–31

Firearms prevention programs, 202–209

Firearms research, standards and methods

for, 16–18

Firearms safety technology, 214–220

child access prevention laws, 217–219

locking technology, 215–217

Firearms trace data, BATF, 79–80

Firearms Tracing Center, 38

Firearms use surveys, replication and

recommendations in, 113–114

Firearms violence

and ownership, data for measuring, 18–

52

sources of data for research on, 15–16

First Amendment principles, 292, 296

Fourteenth Amendment, Due Process Clause

of, 288

Frameworks. See also Analytic framework

of illegal firearm acquisition;

Conceptual framework for firearms

and suicide; Direct causality

framework; Reverse causality

framework; Spurious correlation

framework; “Third factor”

confounder framework

and illegal firearm acquisition, 86–87

FSP. See Firearm Suppression Program

Fundamental rights, 295n

G

Gallup Poll, 57, 162

General Social Survey (GSS), 3, 34–35, 43–

44, 57, 164

Gillespie v. City of Indianapolis, 284

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 287

GSS. See General Social Survey

Gun buy-backs

in Australia, 96

to reduce criminal access to firearms,

95–96

322 INDEX

Gun buyers, screening to reduce criminal

access to firearms, 93–95

“Gun control,” and the Second

Amendment, 14–15

Gun Control Act of 1968, 37–38

Gun courts, 221–222

Gun dealers, regulation of, to reduce

criminal access to firearms, 89–92

Gun laws. See also individual laws

cross-sectional studies of, 184

the difference made by, 184–192

mandatory penalties for unlawful

carrying of guns, 226–229

quasi-experimental studies of, 192–193

Gun ownership

associations with suicide rates across

time, 162–163

proxy measures of, 41–42, 164–170,

194

Gun purchasers, recent, risk of suicide

among, 181–183

Gun sources

BATF firearms trace data, 79–80

BATF investigation data, 80–82

interpreting the data, 82

for offenders obtaining firearms, 77–82

survey research, 77–79

volume of firearms diverted through

trafficking channels, 81

Guns

limitation of sales, to reduce criminal

access to firearms, 92–93

used to defend against criminals, 18,

102–119

vintage of, 88–89

Guns & Ammo (magazine), 155, 160, 165

H

Handgun acquisition by criminals, 292

sources and methods of, 78

Harris Poll, 57

Harvard Injury Control Research Center

Survey (HICRC), 164

Harvard School of Public Health, Injury

Control Research Center, 3, 33, 50

Hatch, Orrin, 279

Helland and Tabarrok’s results, 137

Hickman v. Block, 278

HICRC. See Harvard Injury Control

Research Center Survey

Homeless people, estimating a model of the

fraction of in a city, 307

Homicide rates by country, 54–56

international comparisons, 54

international firearms homicide and

suicide rates, 55

U.S. rates, 56

Homicides, firearms and, 61–64

Household gun ownership, relationship

with suicides using a firearm, 167

Hunters, 12–13

Hybrid variable model, 132–133

I

ICECI. See International Classification of

External Causes of Injury

Illegal firearm acquisition

demand for, 84–85

interventions aimed at, 18, 72–101

model of, 82–86

supply of, 85–86

Illegal firearms commerce, 73–77

Inaccurate response, in firearms use surveys,

109–110

Incorporation question, 287–288

Indianapolis, Indiana, directed patrol

project in, 232–233

Individual-level studies

assessment of, 183

improving, 195–196

Individual-level studies of association

between firearms and suicide, 171–

184

assessment of, 183

next steps, 183–184

psychological autopsy studies of firearm

prevalence, 173–181

risk of suicide among recent gun

purchasers, 181–183

Individual right interpretation of the Second

Amendment, 280–288

academic support of, 282–284

the federal courts of appeals and, 284

the incorporation question, 287–288

the U.S. Supreme Court and, 284–287

Individual survey responses, aggregating,

58–59

Infants, and firearm possession, 294n

“Infringements” on the Second Amendment

right, 292–294

INDEX 323

Injury Control Research Center, 33, 50

Institute for Social Research, 45

Institute of Medicine, 219

International Classification of Diseases

coding system, 46–47

International Classification of External

Causes of Injury (ICECI), 47

International firearms homicide and suicide

rates, 55

International studies

comparisons in homicide rates, 54

cross-sectional associations, 161–162

Interrupted-time-series studies, of gun laws

and suicide, 98, 188–191, 228

Interventions to reduce criminal access to

firearms, 89–98. See also Behavioral

interventions; Criminal justice

interventions, to reduce firearmrelated

violence; Market-based

interventions

banning assault weapons, 96–97

District of Columbia handgun ban, 97–

98

gun buy-backs, 95–96

in illegal firearm acquisition, 89–98

limiting gun sales, 92–93

regulating gun dealers, 89–92

screening gun buyers, 93–95

Interventions to reduce illegal firearm

acquisition, 18, 72–101

analytic framework, 82–87

offenders obtaining firearms, 73–82

substitution, 88–89

Interventions to reduce violence and suicide,

8–10

criminal justice interventions, 9–10

prevention programs and technology, 9

recommendations on, 8–10

restricting access, 8–9

Investigation data, BATF, 80–82

J

Joyce Foundation, 13

Judicial scrutiny

of challenged gun control regulations,

276–298

contribution of empirical research to,

297–298

restrictions on an individual Second

Amendment right, 288–297

rise of an individual right interpretation

of the Second Amendment, 280–288

Justice Research and Statistics Association,

33n

K

Kansas City Gun Project, 231–232

L

Law and enforcement, sources of firearm

data on, 28–31

Legal and illegal firearms commerce, 73–77

firearms flows, 75

Limitation of gun sales, to reduce criminal

access to firearms, 92–93

Locking technology, 215–217

Lott, John, 120, 269

Lott’s results, 125–127, 269–275

dummy variable model with common

time pattern, 126–127

in statistical analyses of right-to-carry

laws, 125–127

trend model with common time pattern,

128–129

M

Mandatory penalties, for unlawful carrying

of guns, 226–229

Market-based interventions, 8

and illegal firearm acquisition, 87

intermediate effects of, 87

McClure-Volkmer Act, 16n, 50

Mental unsoundness, and firearm

possession, 294n

Methodological approaches, 4–5

description of, 121–125

for firearms research, 16–18

Methods, of handgun acquisition by

criminals, 78

Model of illegal firearm acquisition, 82–86.

See also Trend model analysis

demand, 84–85

supply, 85–86

Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey, 4, 36,

45

Monte Carlo design, 169

Moody’s results, 127

324 INDEX

Moore v. City of East Cleveland, 295n

MTF. See Monitoring the Future

Murder rates, by weapon type, 62

Mustard, David, 120

N

National Center for Injury Prevention and

Control, 47

National Crime Survey, 103

National Crime Victimization Survey

(NCVS), 21, 30, 36, 43–46, 59n, 61,

65–66, 74, 103–106, 109–112, 115–

117

sampling design of, 104

National Electronic Injury Surveillance

System (NEISS), 59n, 60, 69

National Firearms Act of 1934, 286

National Household Survey of Drug Abuse,

36

National Incident-Based Reporting System

(NIBRS), 3, 21, 32–34, 45–46, 48–

50

National Institute of Justice, 13, 51, 101,

215, 227, 240

ADAM survey, 37, 40–41, 44, 48, 87

National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent

Health (AddHealth), 181

National Opinion Research Center

(NORC), 34, 162

National Research Council, 3, 16, 108n,

116n, 234, 239, 269

National Review (magazine), 306

National Rifle Association (NRA), 13, 278,

301

National Self-Defense Survey (NSDS), 35,

103–113, 117

sampling design of, 104

National Study of Private Firearms

Ownership (NSPFO), 111n, 112

National Survey of Private Gun Ownership,

86

National Violent Death Reporting System

(NVDRS), 3, 21, 33–34, 45, 47–50,

195

National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), 45–

46, 59

NCVS. See National Crime Victimization

Survey

Needham Lifestyle Survey, 164

NEISS. See National Electronic Injury

Surveillance System

New York Police Department’s street crime

unit, 233–234

NIBRS. See National Incident-Based

Reporting System

Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government

PAC, 297

Nonfatal injuries

firearms and, 64–66

number and rate of overall and firearmrelated,

by intent, 60

Nonfatal self-harm, 69

Nongun suicide, 155

Nonparametric estimation, 305–306

Nonresponse, in firearms use surveys, 110–

111

NORC. See National Opinion Research

Center

Nordyke v. King, 278, 284

NRA. See National Rifle Association

NSDS. See National Self-Defense Survey

NSPFO. See National Study of Private

Firearms Ownership

NVDRS. See National Violent Death

Reporting System

NVSS. See National Vital Statistics System

O

Observational data, 239, 299

Offenders, 64

Offenders obtaining firearms, 73–82

gun sources, 77–82

in illegal firearm acquisition, 73–82

legal and illegal firearms commerce, 73–

77

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency

Prevention, 202

Office of Science and Technology, 215

Operation Ceasefire, 9–10, 236–241

Outcomes

measures of, 203, 208–211

of potential criminal encounters, 107

Ownership data, 4, 41–42, 164–170, 194

P

Palko v. Connecticut, 288

Patchwork of data sets, 20–42

data on firearms ownership, use, and

markets, 34–42

data on violence and crime, 20–34

INDEX 325

Patterns of firearm-related violence, 18, 53–

71

firearm availability and ownership, 56–

59

firearm-related harm, 59–71

homicide rates by country, 54–56

Penalties, mandatory, for unlawful carrying

of guns, 226–229

Personal Protection Act, in the District of

Columbia, 279

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, police gun

suppression patrols in, 233

Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 296

Plassmann and Tideman’s results, 134

Plassmann and Whitley’s results,

135–136

Police Foundation, 75, 86

Police gun suppression patrols, in

Pittsburgh, 233

Policing gun violence hot spots, 230–235

Indianapolis, Indiana, directed patrol

project, 232–233

Kansas City Gun Project, 231–232

lessons learned, 234–235

New York Police Department’s street

crime unit, 233–234

police gun suppression patrols in

Pittsburgh, 233

Policing violent gun offenders, 235–241

Boston Gun Project and Operation

Ceasefire, 236–239

lessons learned, 241

other applications of the pulling-levers

focused deterrence approach, 240–

241

St. Louis youth Firearm Suppression

Program, 235–236

supply-side programs, 239–240

Policy studies, recommendations for needed,

196

Potential criminal encounters, stages and

outcome of, 107

Presser v. Illinois, 287

Prevalence rates, 37

Prevention laws, preventing child access,

217–219

Prevention programs, and technology, 9

Primary sampling units (PSU), 58

Probability, of injury and loss among

victims by means of self-defense with

a firearm, 115

Problem-oriented policing to prevent

firearm-related crime, 230–241

policing gun violence hot spots, 230–235

policing violent gun offenders, 235–241

Production-based estimates, 56–57

Project Exile, 9–10, 225–226

Project Safe Neighborhoods, 221

Property crimes, disaggregate, 148

Proxy measures of gun ownership, 41–42,

164–170, 194

correlation coefficient between a proxy

and gun ownership rates, 165

Monte Carlo design, 169

and suicides using a firearm to

household gun ownership, 167

PSU. See Primary sampling units

Psychological autopsy studies, of firearm

prevalence, 173–181

“Pulling-levers” focused deterrence

approach, applications of, 237, 240–

241

Q

Quality

of data, 16

of the research, 213–214

Quasi-experimental studies of gun laws and

suicide, 192–193

R

RAND Corporation, 235

Rape, with firearm involvement, 66

“Rare outcome assumption,” 197

“Reasonable” infringements, on the Second

Amendment right, 295–297

Recommendations, 3–5, 192–196

data systems, 194–195

defensive gun use, 6–7

emerging data systems on violent events,

3

on firearms, criminal violence, and

suicide, 5–6

on firearms use surveys, 113–114

further policy studies needed, 196

improved individual-level studies, 195–

196

methodological approaches, 4–5

ownership data, 4

326 INDEX

proxy measures of gun ownership, 194

research, 5–10

right-to-carry laws, 7

“Region-interacted time pattern model,”

dummy variable model with, 123

Regulation of gun dealers, to reduce

criminal access to firearms, 89–92

Renton v. Playtime Theatres, 297

Replication, in firearms use surveys, 113–114

Representativeness, of research data, 42–43

Research data. See also Empirical research;

Studies; Survey research

accuracy, 43

comprehensiveness, 44–45

general objectives for developing useful,

42–48

representativeness, 42–43

standardization in developing useful, 45–

47

timeliness, 48

Research recommendations, 5–10

deterrence and defense, 6–7

firearms, criminal violence, and suicide,

5–6

interventions to reduce violence and

suicide, 8–10

RESET test, 307

Response problems in firearms use surveys,

108–114

external validity, 111–113

inaccurate response, 109–110

nonresponse, 110–111

replication and recommendations, 113–

114

“Response” to Wilson’s “Dissent,” 18,

272–275

committee control variable analysis,

273–274

committee trend model analysis, 274–

275

published studies, 273

Restricted access, 8–9

Restrictions on an individual Second

Amendment right, 288–297

“infringements,” 292–294

“reasonable” infringements, 295–297

scope of, 289–292

Reverse causality framework, 153

Revised new data sets, 126–127, 139

Revised original data sets, 122, 125–126

Richmond, Virginia, Project Exile, 9–10,

225–226

Right-to-carry (RTC) laws, 7, 18, 120–151,

269–271

analyzing estimates for robustness, 139–

150

description of the data and methods,

121–125

statistical analyses of, 125–139

statistical issues in the evaluation of

effects of, 18, 299–308

Risk

attributable, 198–200

of suicide among recent gun purchasers,

181–183

Robberies, 65–66

rate of, by firearm involvement, 66

Robustness, analyzing estimates for, 139–

150

RTC. See Right-to-carry laws

S

Safety technology, 214–220

Samples. See also Updated sample endpoint

administrative and convenience, 37–41

Sampling design, comparing the NCVS and

NSDS, 104

Scalia, Antonin, 286

Scofflaws, among FFLs, 90

Scope

in developing useful research data, 44–

45

of the Second Amendment right, 289–

292

Screening of gun buyers, to reduce criminal

access to firearms, 93–95

Second Amendment right, 276–298

the federal courts of appeals and, 284

“gun control” and, 14–15

individual right interpretation of, 280–

288

“infringements” on, 292–294

U.S. Supreme Court and, 284–287

Self-defense with a firearm, 18, 102–119

defensive gun uses, 103–114

efficacy of, 114–119

Self-harm, firearms and, 66–69

Sentencing enhancements, for firearmrelated

crimes, 223–226

Sexual assaults, with firearm involvement, 66

Shall-issue laws, 120n

SHR. See Supplemental Homicide Reports

INDEX 327

Silveira v. Lockyer, 278

Souter, David, 287

Specification search, 307

Spurious correlation framework, 153

St. Louis youth Firearm Suppression

Program (FSP), 235–236

Stages, of potential criminal encounters, 107

Standard errors, in statistical analyses of

right-to-carry laws, 137–139

Standardization in developing useful

research data, 45–47

Data Elements for Emergency

Department Systems, 47

International Classification of External

Causes of Injury, 47

Standards, for firearms research, 16–18

STAR. See Straight Talk about Risks

Statistical analyses of right-to-carry laws,

125–139

control variables and specification, 128–

135

Lott’s results, 125–127

standard errors in, 137–139

summary of selected studies, 130–133

trend in the logarithm of the violent

crime rate, 135

updated sample endpoint, 135–137

Statistical issues in the evaluation of the

effects of right-to-carry laws, 18,

299–308

choosing the explanatory variables, 299–

304

estimating the relation to crime rates and

the explanatory variables, 304–308

Stevens, John Paul, 287

“Stopping rule,” 172

Straight Talk about Risks (STAR), 213

Studies

design of, 211–213

policy, 196

published, 273

Subjective assessments, of self-defense with

a firearm, 117

Substitution, 8

and confounders, 163–164

in illegal firearm acquisition, 88–89

Suicide rates. See also Firearms and suicide

associations with gun ownership across

time, 162–163

by firearm involvement, 68

quasi-experimental studies of, 192–193

by race, 69

Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR), 32,

64

Supply, of illegal firearms, 85–86

Supply-side programs, 239–240

Survey research, 34–37, 77–79, 113–114

aggregation of individual responses, 58–

59

coverage of defensive gun use surveys,

105–108

survey-based estimates, 57–58

T

Technology

of firearms safety, 214–220

of locking, 215–217

and prevention programs, 9

“Third factor” confounder framework, 153

Thomas, Clarence, 286

Time series studies of gun laws and suicide,

185–192

cross-sectional studies of gun laws and

suicide, 186–189

interrupted-time-series studies of gun

laws and suicide, 188–191

quasi-experimental studies of gun laws

and suicide, 192–193

Timeliness, of research data, 48

Trafficking channels, volume of firearms

diverted through, 81

Trend model analysis, 92, 132–133

committee, 274–275

with common time pattern, 128–129,

142–143

with varying postlaw change durations,

150–151

Triad model, 124–125

U

UCR. See Uniform Crime Reports

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 21, 31–32,

44–46, 59n, 61, 65, 136–137

United States v. Cruikshank, 287

United States v. Emerson, 276–279, 284

United States v. Miller, 285–286

University of Michigan, Institute for Social

Research, 45

Unlawful carrying of guns, mandatory

penalties for, 226–229

328 INDEX

Updated sample endpoint, in statistical

analyses of right-to-carry laws, 135–

137

U.S. Census Bureau, 46, 80

U.S. Constitution. See First Amendment

principles; Fourteenth Amendment;

Second Amendment right

U.S. cross-sectional associations, studies of,

155–161

U.S. Department of Justice, 37

U.S. homicide rates, 56

V

Victims, 62–63

Vintage, of guns, 88–89

Violence, interventions to reduce, 8–10

Violent Crime Control and Law

Enforcement Act, 96

Violent crimes, disaggregate, 146–147

Violent events, emerging data systems on, 3

Volume of firearms diverted, through

trafficking channels, 81

W

Weaponry in homicide, 61–62

murder rates by weapon type, 62

Web-based Injury Statistics Query and

Reporting System (WISQARS), 63n

Wilson’s “Dissent,” 18, 269–271

Committee response to, 18, 272–275

WISQARS. See Web-based Injury Statistics

Query and Reporting System

World Health Organization, 47

Y

YCGII. See Youth Crime Gun Interdiction

Initiative

Youth, firearms and, 28–29

Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative

(YCGII), 39, 79–80

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System,

45, 195