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34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 

Abigail 28 Did not specify Computer programmer Middle class Married

Sheila 32 ‘A’ level Secretary Middle/working class Married

Felicity 32 Degree University lecturer Did not specify Married

Diana 34 Law degree Lawyer Working class Married

Helen 30 Did not specify Recruitment manager Working/middle class Married

Faye 31 ‘O’ levels Local government officer Working/professional class Married

Peggy 29 Degree Teacher Professional? Married

All names have been changed.

‘O’ level school examinations were taken by sixteen-year-olds prior to either leaving school to work or staying on to study for ‘A’ level exams. These

have since been replaced by GCSE exams.

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References 171

Index

age 46

agency 14, 57, 72, 78, 81, 141; and

material and structural

circumstances 18

and world of work 77

embodied dimensions of agency 14

individual experience 57

lone mothers 117

universal notions of agency 20

antenatal period 50, 51, 58, 66, 78, 80

and normative practices 58

antenatal attendance and Bangladeshi

women 37, 38

antenatal care 68, 74

antenatal narratives 97

antenatal practices 51, 59, 60

antenatal/ prenatal preparation 30,

31, 68

‘appropriate’ service use 68

experts 94

health care team 71

information 70

monitoring progress 72, 74

take up of antenatal services 37, 38

ultrasound scan 69, 78

authoritative knowledge 13, 29, 41, 42, 49,

51, 52, 58, 73, 80, 87, 114

and constructions of expert knowledge

31, 34, 42, 74, 78, 115, 136

and technology 73, 151

consensual models 43, 44, 149 , 151,

152

cultural authority 38

dominant forms of authoritative

knowledge 28, 140

experts 31, 139

health and medical professionals 40

hierarchical forms 29, 40, 42, 150

horizontal forms 29, 34, 40

in Bangladesh 32, 34

Bangladesh 16, 30, 153

authoritative knowledge and practices in

Bangladesh 32, 34,

bustees – slum areas in Bangladesh 27

Children’s Nutrition Unit 34

dai 33

Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh 7, 27

maternal mortality 33, 153

patriarchal society 32, 153

pollution and evil spirits 34

population 32

‘purdah’ 33

reproductive behaviours and

practices 28

traditional birth attendants 33

caste 151

childbirth 10

and concept of ‘pollution’ 27, 32, 33, 40

and expert practices 66, 70

and menstruation 32, 40, 81

anticipating the birth 61, 75

as natural process 95

birth experiences 61, 90

caesarean 53, 95, 97

control 93

cultural patterning of pregnancy and

childbirth 32, 34, 44, 93

dais and dhorunis in Bangladesh 27

deference to medical knowledge 68, 93

hospital birth 41, 50, 53, 58, 69, 77, 87

increased use of technology 51, 52

induction 94, 95

maternity kits 34

maternal mortality 50

medical view 73

monitoring 94

pain relief 75, 76, 77, 78, 93

perinatal mortality 50

preparation for 38

‘purdah’ 33

risk and safety 51, 75, 87, 94, 95

screening 52,

smell and mess 41

childless women 58, 86

childrearing 97

counselling 17

172

cultures 37

cultural authority 38, 70

cultural boundaries 44

cultural contours of motherhood 86,

144, 154

cultural ‘props’ 146

cultural reference points 45, 62, 86

‘cultural space’ 40

cultural traditions and religious beliefs

37, 45

cultural scripts 8, 11, 27, 28, 39, 40, 45,

56, 62, 121, 142, 147, 149

and cultural practices 15, 45, 85

and constructions of women’s bodies

30, 33

and globalised world 44

and narratives 42, 56

culturally acceptable narratives 23, 132,

134

cultural authority 30, 40, 86

dominant in Bangladesh 28

dynamic 32

patterning of pregnancy and childbirth 32

scripts in the West 139

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

60, 102

essentialism 7, 11, 87, 116, 129, 143, 144,

144, 160

and essentialist expectations 15, 112

essentialist assumptions 73, 105 ,

138, 139

essentialist constructions of

motherhood 108, 110

fathers 63

feeding intentions 71

feminisms 7, 53, 62, 138, 148

and contested terrain of mothering

and motherhood 7, 30, 46, 53, 56,

63, 153

conservative and pro-family 56

cultural feminism 56

feminist research 7, 64

radical feminists 53

women’s lives in contemporary society 7

frames of reference 72

competing constructions of normal

development 114

competing time-frames 90, 103

different frames of reference 73, 75, 99,

110, 131

gender 7 , 150

and childrearing 85

and caring responsibilities 85, 142, 148

assumptions around caring 84, 85

authority and power 43

and constructions of motherhood 116

and embodied nature of identity 12

and inequalities 151

gender fates 48, 139

gendered knowledge claims 53

‘gendered moral rationalities’ 118, 121

gendered practices 14, 110

globalisation 43, 151, 154

and the developing world 55, 152

and relevance of cultural scripts 44

maternal and child mortality 151

progress 151

reproductive rights 152

technology 43, 139

health visitor 60, 70, 71, 99, 114

and home visits 99

ideologies 47

and ‘good’ mothering 57, 59

and motherhood 54

dominant ideologies 69, 102, 131

ideal types of mother/worker 118

intensive mothering 85, 109 , 116, 118,

119, 120, 148

pro-family 56

pro-natalist 54

knowledge claims 7 , 27

and structural and material inequalities

7, 13

biological determinism 15

biomedical knowledge 43

culturally inscribed knowledge 37,

45, 46

expert knowledge 6, 47, 48, 67

gendered knowledge claims 53

hierarchies of expert knowledge 95

lay knowledge 43

medical knowledge 40

professional practices 13

public knowledges and private lives 25,

scientific and medical discourses 17

language 39

language difficulties 39

late modernity 25, 46, 47

and constructions of motherhood 89

and experts 59, 62, 74

and individualisation 46, 48, 57, 81,

108, 141, 151

and rapid transformations 17

Index 173

late modernity (cont.)

and reproduction, childbirth and

motherhood 48

and social change 63, 67

and the modernist subject 154

and trust 61

changing familial arrangements 108

features of late modernity 47, 66,

113, 136

heightened reflexivity 139

increased reflexivity 87, 136

modernist subjects 127

reorganisation of time and space 49

risk 30, 47, 48, 106, 112, 113,

116, 136

self-governance 89, 113 , 141, 142

self-surveillance 59, 86, 87, 124

themes of late modernity 46

transformations in 64

Medicaid 58

medicalisation 29, 30, 46, 49, 52, 78, 87,

149 , 150, 154

and screening 52

and trust in experts 48

expert management 49

medicalised mode of birth 27

technology 74

midwife 52, 70, 71, 72, 74, 99, 159

moral context 69, 78, 86, 137, 138, 140,

143 , 146, 159

moral discourses 110

moral identities 64

‘moral minefield’ 121

moral person 47

moral problems 81

screening and moral issues 52

motherhood 6, 25, 26

and biographical narratives 46

and differences 57

and different cultural practices 45

and expectations 46

and reflexivity 139

anticipating motherhood 68, 85

becoming a mother 6 , 9

conceptualisations of children’s

needs 149

constructions of motherhood 83, 84, 86,

108, 116, 120, 144

early experiences of motherhood 9 , 13,

15, 17

first-time motherhood 23

getting back to ‘normal’ 15

in Western societies 46

institution of motherhood 68

journeys into motherhood 67

performing motherhood 106

responsible motherhood 48

self-monitoring 49

the irony of motherhood 139

the moral context 6, 14

theorising motherhood 7 , 23, 56

transition to motherhood 8 , 9, 15, 25,

42, 49

women’s experiences 7

women and their bodies 7

mothering

achievement 125

and control 112

and coping 90, 98, 121, 143

and identity 80

and postnatal depression 98

and responsibilities 6

as biologically determined 46, 55, 64

as instinctive 55, 73, 86, 138, 149, 150

at home 97

becoming a mother 62

becoming the expert 113

essentialist constructions 56

full-time mothering 84

good enough mothering 127, 136

‘good’ mother 55, 75, 77, 79, 84,

86, 106, 116, 123 , 124, 127,

128, 142

intensive mothering 85, 109, 116 , 118,

119, 120, 148

mothering in the public sphere 107

mothering career 104, 112

mothering skills 160

mothering voice 110

mothering work 104 , 119

normal responses to 61

pre-reflexive maternal feelings 145

teenage mothers 6

myths and motherhood, 26, 63, 70, 102,

111, 112, 138, 146, 147, 160

and conspiracy of silence 156

limited repertoire of birth and

mothering stories 90

Narrative 8, 9, 10, 11, 19, 20, 22, 27, 28,

46, 68, 83, 89, 105, 110, 116 , 131,

138, 142

and making sense 23, 60

and philosophical debates 9

and the modernist subject 154

anticipatory narratives 70, 73, 76, 78,

86, 87, 97

biographical disruption 10, 19

biographical narratives 64

174 Index

construction and reconstruction 9, 40,

67, 75, 77, 79, 81, 119, 123 , 127,

131, 142, 143

‘c ount er -nar ra t ives ’ 23, 68, 127 , 147, 159

culturally acceptable narratives 23, 97

discontinuity of a narrative 10

early postnatal narratives 90, 110

late postnatal narratives 118

meta narratives 8 , 11, 56

multi-layered narratives 25, 68, 96, 129

narrating chaos 133

narrative analysis 21

narrative approach 6, 11, 18, 21, 155,

158

narrative devices 101

narrative intention and accountability 9,

10

narrative lapse and bafflement 9 , 19

narrative methodologies 18, 20

narrative struggles 89, 99, 121

narrative trajectories 8, 25, 67

narrative turning point 90, 102, 104 ,

110

narrative unity and coherence 9 , 13, 49,

87, 97, 106, 128, 131

narratives and resistance 96

new narrative opportunities 143

ontological security 16, 17, 47, 61

ontological self-narratives 8 , 16, 18, 61

ontological shift 145

personal narrative 123, 129

plot and emplotment 9, 19, 96, 147

storytelling 10

temporal ordering 101, 121, 124 , 131

National Health Service 58, 68, 71

New Deal 55

normative practices 58

obstetrician 52

parentcraft classes 38, 70, 78

parenting 9

patriarchy 30, 36, 50, 53, 153

postnatal depression 98, 106, 133, 146

postnatal period 59, 71

a return to normal 60

coping and risk 100

early postnatal period 67, 73, 99, 100

home visits in 71

late postnatal period 67

postnatal care 30

pregnancy 30

and control 77; and expert management

and supervision 30; changing

physical shape 80; eventful

pregnancy 27; monitoring of 72,

87; planned pregnancy 80; personal

transition 80

private sphere 90, 98

public sphere 80, 90, 98, 106 , 126, 146

giving a convincing performance 107

mothering in the public sphere

107, 146

‘race’ 17, 46

reflexivity 10, 16, 16, 47, 66, 86, 106, 136,

138, 139, 154

and modernist subject 156 , 157

and sense of self 16, 81

and structural conditions 17

as intrinsic aspect of human action 47,

106

critique of theories of reflexivity 140,

141, 142, 144

gendered and embodied dimensions 17,

106

heightened reflexivity 139

pre-reflexive maternal feelings 145

reflexive difficulties 105

reflexive project of self 47

self-reflexivity 16, 64, 137 , 139

techniques of resistance 110

theories of reflexivity 67, 137, 139 , 141

relativism 20

reproduction 10

and control over women’s bodies 50

and motherhood in late modern

societies 31, 48, 154

expert management 50

normative practices 50

technologies 43

research process 21, 156, 158

analysing narratives 21

appraisal and assessment tools 22

empirical data 154, 158

end-of-study questionnaire 23, 67, 97,

128, 135, 156, 157 , 158, 159

epistemological positions 22

ethical considerations 159

feminist research 7

fieldwork observations 23, 138

gatekeepers 24

interview as co-production 21

interview schedules 24

interview setting 21, 68, 155, 156

longitudinal research 22, 145, 158

methodological issues 139

modernist subjects 127, 155

multi-layered narratives 25

relativism 159

Index 175

researcher reflexivity 21

snowballing 24

theory generation 20

‘validity’ and ‘credibility’ 22

risk 48, 51, 113

and cultural constructions of 66, 113

and increased use of technology 51

and responsibilities 47, 72, 128

and trust in experts 48, 68

heightened perceptions of risk 30, 47,

48, 106, 112, 136 , 150

selves 8 , 11, 12, 120, 141

and bodies 143

and maternal bodies 82

anticipating motherhood 68

as competent social actor 106, 145

changing perceptions of self 68, 80, 82,

108, 123

debates on how selves are constituted

and maintained 8, 11, 13, 90, 158

embodied selves 26, 160

facets of a self 144

gendered selves 138, 160

‘impression management’ 12

performative selves 13, 14, 145

personal transition 11

playing a part 108

pre-baby self 61, 84, 105, 109

presentation of self as mother 14, 15

recognisable selves 54, 61, 103

reflexive project of self 47

‘schemas of self-understanding’ 15, 110,

136

self as ‘good’ mother 24

self-surveillance 80, 112, 141, 142

situating the self 13, 16

social action 8, 24, 62, 108

social identity 8, 11, 54

social self as mother 15, 26, 103, 104,

120, 138, 145, 160

tenuous selves 110, 116, 154 , 160

‘true’ and ‘false’ selves 12

social class 17, 31, 46, 69, 150

social networks 106

changing familial arrangements 108

Solomon Islands 30, 34

betel nut 153

ethnic rivalries 36

hospital births 36

maternal and infant mortality 36

Munda 35

New Georgia 34

population 34

reproductive health problems 153

wontok system 35, 36

support:

patterns of family support 89

technobirth:

in USA 51

therapy 17

research as therapeutic 136, 156

trust:

and perceptions of risk 68

in expert bodies of knowledge 44, 47

Western societies 6

and gendered childrearing practices 120

and notions of selfhood and personhood

151, 156

history of obstetrics in the West 140

mothering work undervalued in Western

societies 119, 138

work and employment 120

and a return to normal 83

anticipating a return to work 84

full-time mothering as work 84

paid work outside the home 108 , 117,

135, 148

public sphere and work 84

working women 72

176 Index